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HIST 3622 Quiz 1 Terms.docx

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HIST 3622
Boyd Cothran

HIST 3622 Quiz 1 Terms End of the International Slave Trade: 18 century led to the end of trans-Atlantic trades and the slave states were forced to reproduce slaves domestically. U.S.-Mexico War: Annexation of Texas provoked war with Mexico and lasted from 1846 to 1848. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo resulted in recognition of Rio Grande as the official border and the cessation of New Mexico territories and Alta California to the United States; seen as an attempt to expand slavery states by abolitionists in the north. Missouri Compromise: Passed in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the Congress; primarily used to deal with the regulation of slavery in the West; repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 in favor of popular sovereignty Compromise of 1850: Package of bills diffusing confrontation between free and slave states; heated debate regarding the status of California as a free state Annexation of Texas: 1845; Texas‟ border dispute with Mexico led to the outbreak of the US- Mexico War after annexing and admitting the Republic of Texas into statehood; Maintenance and expansion of slavery in the South was done through Texas and the seceded Mexican lands. Annexation of California: 1846; hostilities continued on between Mexican and American forces; admitted into the union in 1850 after occupation and „liberation‟ from Mexico; admission as a free state enraged pro-slavery politicians, citing violation in the Missouri Compromise. Election of 1844: Democrat James Polk won against Whig Henry Clay; Polk made an American agenda focus on Western expansionism and Manifest Destiny Election of 1848: Whig Zachary Taylor won against Democrat Lewiss Cass; Whigs focused on condemning Polk‟s war policies especially in the annexation case of Texas and war with Mexico; Free Soil Party was established in this election to oppose further expansion of slavery. Election of 1852: Democrat Franklin Pierce won against Whig Winfield Scott; nomination of Pierce as a „dark horse‟; last election Whigs participated in; Free Soil continue to participate Election of 1856: Democrat James Buchanan won against Republican John Fremont; first election participated by the Republican Party and the “Know-Nothings”; Pierce defeated over issue of Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 which divided the Democrats; Republicans became the crusaders against slavery; Democrats endorsed popular sovereignty for newly admitted states; Know-Nothing nativists became a major third power after Republicans in popularity. Election of 1860: Republican Abraham Lincoln won against Southern Democrat John Breckinridge; nation already divided on issue of slavery; Democrats split into northern and southern factions; seven southern states seceded and formed the Confederacy; Civil War begins The Wilmot Proviso: Banning slavery in any future states acquired from Mexico; alternative proposition to the Compromise of 1850. Kansas-Nebraska Act: Popular sovereignty; states decide for themselves whether they should adopt a pro-slavery or an anti-slavery platform. Bleeding Kansas: Series of violent confrontation between pro-slavery and anti-slavery elements in the newly admitted state of Kansas as a free state was led by abolitionist and slaveholder settlers on each side. The Panic of 1857: Financial crisis in the United States due to over-expansion and deflation of the domestic economy. Free states blamed slave states for deflation while rebuttals were also made for hyper-inflated currency. Lecompton Constitution: Proposed pro-slavery constitution for Kansas rivaling anti-slavery. Pottawattamie Creek Massacre: Part of Bleeding Kansas. John Brown led the abolitionists. Topeka Constitution: 1855 meeting proposing a ban on slavery in Kansas. Secession Crisis: Election of 1860 provoked secession by South Carolina first but other states in the South also followed to protest Lincoln‟s inauguration. Gave rise to the Confederacy. Fugitive Slave Act: Two laws in 1793 and 1850 to provide stronger federal backing in the recapturing and returning escaped slaves regardless of whether it occurs on free or slave states. Frederick Douglass: Black abolitionist and former slave. He was a prominent orator against slavery and supporter of immediate emancipation. Harriet Tubman: Black abolitionist (called “Moses”), former slave, and leading figure of the Underground Railroad. Abraham Lincoln: First Republican nominee to be elected as the President. Though despising slavery, Lincoln called for the gradual abolition rather than immediate emancipation. His election sparked secessthns and war amongst the Southern states. James Buchanan: 15 President, responsible for the inability to pacify the sharp divisions between North and South. Democratic Party split into two after his term in office. Jefferson Davis: Mississippi Senator and first (and last) president of the Confederate States of America. Initially argued against secession, but agreed that states have immutable autonomy to secede from the union. Henry Clay: Slave owner, but as the Senate from Kentucky, he argued for a balance between Northern and Southern states, including the admission of California as a free state. David Wilmot: A Free-soil party member who organized the Wilmot Proviso and hardline believer of keeping slavery within limits so that the practi
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