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HIST 3645 (1)

HIST 3645 Exam Notes

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HIST 3645
William Gleberzon

1 HIST 3645 Exam Notes 1) Identifications and Significance - Answer 2 of the 6 Choices (25% each = 50%) Brown v. Board of Education (of Topeka) - Supreme Court decision in 1954 that reversed the “separate, but equal” law first enacted in the Plessey vs. Ferguson decision which officially began the process of racial segregation in American society. The decision warranted desegregation in public spaces and institutions, but many delays were faced by conservative backlash and other factors unwilling to adopt the new law. This decision strengthened the momentum of the Civil Rights Movement to pursue racial equality and desegregation as its fundamental goals in the coming 1960s. 1964 Civil Rights Act - An act that banned employment discrimination based on race or “sex” (gender). The passage of this bill proved to be one of the greatest accomplishments of the Civil Rights Movement as well as the Second-Wave Feminist Movement. When the government however failed to act on complaints of sex discrimination, women activists formed the National Organization for Women (NOW) in response to inadequate governmental support of the bill. In the same sense regarding racial discrimination, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) served a similar purpose. Equal protection before the law and equal participation in society was defined as a long-term goal when the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was granted passage into the law. McCarthyism - Between 1950 and 1954, Senator Joseph McCarthy conducted a series of practices across the United States that related to accusing fellow Americans of being communists or sympathizers of the sort without any proper regard for evidence. This movement was based on attacking politicians, government, and corporates on the issue of loyalty in contrast to regular accusations basing on dishonesty and corruption. During the height of the Red Scares between the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the end of World War II, internal tensions in the United States drastically increased following strikes, leftist movements, and anarchist movements, which were all considered to be connected to communism in some way. Parallel to the Lavender scare, McCarthy operated the “big lie” scheme to gain publicity for the red scare but the rest of the Senate became fed up with him and condemned his actions, which in turn ruined McCarthy’s reputation and led to the fell of McCarthyism, despite continuance of the accusations. Malcolm X - The failure of the Civil Rights Movement to address the immediate causes of inequality and poverty within African-American communities caused a shift of many disgruntled activists into forming a Black Power movement based on Black Nationalism. Malcolm X, who had been a leading disciple of Elijah Muhammed, became the head of the Nation of Islam in America which promoted the doctrine of black separation from the “white devil” as well as the belief of self-defense and self-reliance. He was quite reluctant to side with Martin Luther King Jr., and his idea of non-violent activism, but eventually gave into promoting certain aspects of the Civil Rights Movement. Baby Boomers - A generation of Americans born after (or arguably even during) World War II became a pivotal group that formed nearly the entire basis of the political movements that radically shaped their society and future. Unlike the major conservative beliefs held by the older 2 generation of Americans, the younger generation was met with many challenges in society that would not change for their benefit unless they took it in action with their own hands. The African-American Civil Rights Movement, Second-Wave Feminism, and various youth movements during the 1960s were in largely formed by this particular generation that understood the rules of society, yet ready to rebel against it. Despite that, there were even many baby boomers that willingly followed the traditional customs of the older generation although the ones who refused to keep it eventually made their mark to shape a better future. Stonewall Inn - A new voice of assertive self-affirmation was found in the LGBT movement after the Stonewall Riots of 1969. The disillusionment of assimilating into a “straight” world and the Lavender scare discrimination based on individual sexuality created gay bars as the integral communal base for homosexuals. The gay bar at Greenwich Village in Manhattan (New York City) was raided by the New York Police Department, but instead of abiding to authority, patrons and supporters resisted against the outright discrimination of sexuality. R
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