HIST 3775 Final Exam Notes
1) Terms (Answer 4 of the 6 Choices Given) - Identify & Explain, When, and significance
in Hong Kong history. NO POINT FORMS!!!
2) Essay (Answer 1 of the 2 Choices Given) - Based on Readings from Week 2, 3, 4, or 6.
The answer must show familiarity with relevant readings.
3) Essay (Answer 1 of the 2 Choices Given) Based on Lectures from Week 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6.
The answer must show familiarity with relevant lectures.
Week One: Pre-history to Founding of Colony
British East India Company (BEIC, 1600): "country traders"
Tea Trade (circa 1700) / Silver into China (circa 1781) / Opium monopoly (18 century)
Triangular Trade (19 century)
Macartney Mission (1793 - 1794): British Trade mission / Chinese Tribute mission
European unfairness in Canton System (1757) and submission to Chinese Laws
Opium War (1839 - 1842)
Social problem and fiscal problem in China / Chinese opium ban vs. British Free Trade
British victory led to the Treaty of Nanjing (1842) and the subsequent formal secession of
Hong Kong Island, the abolishment of the Canton system, and treaty ports.
"Hong Kong became a British colony as a result of the Opium War"
Sino-centric Worldview (circa 19th century)
National Humiliation: A result of losing a war, the land of Hong Kong was acquired by
Britain from China. Intellectuals consider Hong Kong as a symbol of national humiliation
to the Chinese empire. Hong Kong Island ceded in 1841 (according to Britain).
The Hong Kong Charter (1843): formally declared the colony's existence under Queen Victoria.
"Letters Patent": Crown Colony title, Governor Post.
"Royal Instructions": Administrative System, Legislative Council, Executive Council.
Arrow War (1857 - 1860): Second Opium War
Inland taxes and diplomatic complications.
Arrow Incident (1856): Trade ship Arrow seized by Chinese authorities under
suspicion of smuggling. British used this as an excuse to start a war.
French Missionary Killed (1856): French diplomat ended up in countryside and was
killed by villagers. The French joined the British in occupying Peking.
Peking Convention (1860): more treaty ports, inland access, Kowloon peninsula ceded.
Sir Henry Pottinger: 1st Governor of Hong Kong
Week Two: Entrepot of Trade, People, and Ideas
The term "entrepot" in the context of Hong Kong refers to the entry and storage of goods for
trade as well as passageways for people and ideas between East and West.
Free Port since 1841: No import/export tax, lodging/warehousing charged, port open to all. Entrepot trade: Transshipment Point for British East Asia trade (Hong Kong was often used as a
middle point of transportation before reaching to its intended destination up until the 1950s). The
Korean War in the 1950s led to decline and collapse of this system.
Hong Kong as a product of migration, Cheap labor (later coolie trade) and trade
Bridge between East and West, Exposure to Chinese and Western cultures, ideas, relative
freedom from conservative tradition, Missionaries, bilingual / bicultural Chinese
Freedom from conservative Confucian society because of British rule.
Entrepot trade boom (1870s+)
Suez canal (1869): Compared to yearly one-way journeys between Europe and Hong
Kong via circumventing Africa, the Suez Canal use by European merchants greatly
improved the time of travel by half a year. Links: Trade + Financial Network
Telegraph: HK <> Shanghai <> Europe (1871) / British jurisdiction benefits for all.
Emergence of Related Services: Shipping (e.g. Jardine Matheson since 1832), HK Chinese firms,
storage facilities (e.g. HK and Kowloon Wharf Co. since 1886), ship repairing, banking (e.g.
Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank), insurance.
1842: Hong Kong Chinese as British subjects
Registration system (1844): Required Chinese in Hong Kong to carry identification cards, but
was ineffective because of open borders.
Light and Pass Ordinance (1857): Required primarily Chinese to carry a light source after sunset
along with an identification card.
European District Preservation Ordinance (1888): Residential Segregation and zoning bylaw that
physically separated the Chinese and Europeans in Hong Kong living spaces because of
differences in architecture.
Sojourner Society: Often single men or married husbands who have families in China often
arrive in Hong Kong for economic motives and send earned money back to China. It was often a
temporary settlement to pursue economic motives without loyalty because of proximity to China.
James Stewart Lockhart: Registrar-General, Colonial Secretary (1895 - 1902). He raised the
Union Jack in Hong Kong upon the lease of the New Territories in 1898.
Cecil Clementi: Governor (1925 - 1930). Was a cultural scholar in Cantonese culture and arts.
Reginald Johnston: was the tutor of the last emperor in Imperial China.
Registrar-General (1845): in charge of residents in Hong Kong
Man Mo Temple (1847): Religious building, open to all, meeting place, town hall, school.
Taiping Rebellion in China (1850 - 1865): About half of southern China was taken control by
rebels for at least 15 years.
Trade organizations (1860+) such as Nam Pak Hong (North-South Trading Association)
Neighborhood (Kaifong) Organizations (1860s+): Basis of District Watch Force, security.
District Watch Force (1866): De facto community police force.
Tung Wah Hospital (1869): Local and used traditional practices. Government funded a bit.
Po Leung Kuk (1880): Society for the Protection of Women and Children
Sir Robert Ho Tung (1862 - 1956): Dutch-Chinese parentage, comprador, community / colony
leadership, 1st Chinese on Victoria Peak
Trade networks HK + Chinese Overseas Communities: Supplies for Chinatowns via HK
James Legge: Confucian Classics, Anglo-Chinese College, (1818 in Malacca (Malaysia), 1843 in
St. Paul, St. Joseph
1st Girls' Schools: Italian Convert School (1860) and Diocesan Girls School (1860).
Missionary schools: Central School (1862), now Queen's College (1894)
Wang Tao (1828 - 1897): Confucian scholar, in Hong Kong (1862 - 1884), assisted James Legge
in translations, 1st Chinese daily newspaper in HK (and Shanghai now).
Ng Choy (1842 - 1922): St. Paul's, British Law Degree, 1st Chinese LegCo member (1880)
Qing Legal Reforms (1900s): Choy was instrumental in China to modernize the nation.
Ho Kai (1859 - 1914): Queen's College, British Law and Medical degrees.
Alice Memorial Hospital (1886), Medical College for Chinese (1887) [now Faculty of
Medicine, Hong Kong University since 1911], Kai Tak Airport [Tak was his partner].
Week Three: Social and Economic Developments (1910s - 1930s)
Self-Strengthening Movement (1860 - 1895): A series of reforms toward modernization
Piecemeal efforts, Adoption of Western technologies, knowledge
Zhang Zhidong: "Chinese learning for essence, Western learning for practical use"
Scramble for Concessions (1895 - 1898): After China lost to Japan in the Sino-Japanese War
(1895 - 1898), concessions were made and the Chinese were in no position to refuse it.
Meantime, Britain acquired the lease for the New Territories in 1898.
New Territories leased (1898): Balancing French and German influence
Defense of Hong Kong Island / Kowloon: The acquisition of the New Territories served
as a defense buffer for Hong Kong against Japan, France, and Germany.
Late Qing Reforms (1901 - 1911): Extensive adoption of