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Seljuks Empire.docx

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York University
HIST 3791
Shiraz Sheikh

Seljuks: dominant Oghuz Turkish tribe who came from Mawaranahar to Khurasan in Iran / occupied Baghdad for 1 time / freed Arabic lands from Shia’a domination and were glorified by the Abbasid ruler / despite attempts at making it a centralized military institution, the Great Saljuqs never transitioned from Turkic tribal oligarchy into Iranian imperial dynasty / 2 main problems were their tribal tradition of collective sovereignty and sheer numbers of Oghuz tribesmen, whom Saljuq family never effectively controlled / succession was never totally clear and many family members contended for leadership Pax Mongolica: Battle of Ayn Jalut (1260) Nizam al-Mulk: personified Persian influence in Saljuq affairs, became influential after joining Alp Arslan / functioned as de facto ruler of Saljuq kingdom which he modeled after Ghaznavid state / NIZAM AL-MULK & SALJUQ ADMIN: instructed Alp Arslan and Malik Shah in autocratic Iranian administration / condemned shia’a Islam and strengthened institutional basis of Sunni Islam / founded many madrasas in Khurasan and Iraq in order to systemize Sunni muslim religious training Tulughma Kuriltai Oghuz: Turks entered the Islamic world in 2 ways: as military slaves and as pastoral nomads / with the founding of Ghaznavid state by former Turkic slaves of Iranian Samanids, Turkish nomads began migrating into middle east from mawaranahar as islamized turkish pastoralists / in late 10 and early 11 cent. They poured onto Iranian plateau led by dominant tribe, the Saljuqs / raided into Byzantine empire, provided military forces and structure to later safavid empire and began settling in Anatolia / Òsman The Delhi Sultanate (1206-1398): modeled after ghaznavid administrative and cultural traits as centralized military despotism, used Persian as one of princi
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