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[HLST 1010] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (34 pages long)


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLST 1010
Professor
Dennis Raphael
Study Guide
Final

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York
HLST 1010
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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HLST 1010 Chapter Summaries
CHAPTER 1
- John Snow: father of epidemiology (“shoe leather epidemiology” door to door)
- William Farr: registrar general in London recognized poverty was a contributor to
poor health
- Epidemiologist study risk factors which are a behavior or characteristic
associated with a condition.
- Social Epidemiology: reflects the population or societal level of analysis.
- The Lalonde Report: 1974 first government report to differentiate health and
health care
- Plato: democracy can only function if gap between rich and poor is no more than
1 in 4.
- WHO: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and
not just the absence of a disease or infirmity.
- Self-Assessed Health: asking people how healthy they consider themselves to
be. Often used in culturally similar populations.
- IMR measures how many infants die in the first year of life.
- Richard Wilkinson: 1986 found that gap between the rich and poor correlated
with the population’s health.
- Income difference is the most commonly measured form of inequality.
- What produces health in a population:
Provision of basic need (food, water, shelter, security)
Caring and sharing (esp. in early life) typically measured by distribution of
wealth, resources, income, political power, status of women.
Access to basic health care services
Cultural elements of reciprocity, social harmony, vigilant sharing.
Focus on early life
- David Barker: studied importance of early life on health
- John Bowlby: studied orphans after WW2 showed importance of at least the
presence of one parent from birth to age 1.
- Epigenetic mechanism: heritable changes that are not due to alternation in the
DNA
- General Douglas McArthur had 3 ingredients for Japan:
Demilitarization
Democratization (everyone got to vote, labour unions had right to organize
and bargain collectively. Maximize age of 65 K yen /year)
Decentralization (11 large family corporations or zaibatsu that controlled most
of the economy was dismantled. There was also the underlying culture of
social harmony or war.
- Political Power: measured by voting rates, tax fairness, Medicaid accessibility
(healthcare services for the impoverished), and education attainment.
- Green Space Exposure: England economic inequalities translate to less
healthy physical environments (less green) (Box 1.4)
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- Countries that have less focus on specialist care have better health. (Box 1.3)
CHAPTER 2
- Medical Sociology: specific application of sociology to the field of health, illness
and health care.
- Robert Strauss: Sociology IN medicine apply sociology theories towards
better understanding health related problems or creation of a more informed
public health policy. Sociology OF medicine oriented towards better
understanding society or sociological concepts through the lens of health
problems, medical settings, or the organization of health are.
- Structural Functionalism: interrelationship between individuals and groups and
how they are structured in order to maintain function in society as a whole
(Durkheimian)
Related to A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (British Anthropologist) stated that one
element in a society is dependent on another.
Talcott Parsons: introduced the application of structural functionalism to the
field of medical sociology in The Social System (1951). He conceptualized the
sick role.
Sick Role (Box 2.1)
- Exemption from normal social role responsibilities
- Exemption from responsibility for his or her illness
- Undesirable state that the person who is sick wants to get out of
- Obligation to seek technical competent help and comply with
treatment.
Szasz and Hollender refined Parson’s work:
- Patient passivity and physician assertiveness (acute illness most like
Parson’s)
- Physician guidance and patient cooperation
- Physicians providing advice on a treatment plan that patient
responsible for implementing it (more for chronic illness and some
disabilities)
Criticism: more theoretical than empirical. Lacks acknowledgment of
diversity of illnesses and actual behavior of sick people and their providers.
Macro focus
- Symbolic Interactionism: derived from Weberian focus on interacting
individuals and the meaning they create.
Coined by: Herbert Blumer drawing upon George H. Mead’s work; 3 key
principles:
- We act towards things based on the meaning that those things have
for us
- These meanings arise out of social interactions
- We revise our meanings to guide our future interpretations
Canadian sociologist Erving Goffman: book Asylums mental hospitals are
total institutions (behavior interpreted through lens of their mental illness).
Individual self-image replaced with institutionalized ones.
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