Study Guides (275,821)
CA (151,011)
York (13,984)
HREQ (91)
HREQ 4165 (1)
cola (1)
Final

HREQ 4165 Study Guide - Final Guide: Prosocial Behavior, Cesare Lombroso, Human Nature

10 Pages
96 Views
Fall 2014

Department
Human Rights and Equity Studies
Course Code
HREQ 4165
Professor
cola
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Humans as Social Beings & The Question of Human Nature
Human nature as the main behaviors that define human beings
Common assumptions & taken for granted beliefs:
Society is merely a reflection of human nature – does not take into account influences of culture, politics,
economics
Assumptions made about human nature can have implications for the decisions made by those in power
(who is inferior/superior and on what basis (race, religion, sexuality)
Human nature is the result of a combination of factors
Humans are embodied beings but we are not solely defined by our bodies and our biology –
psychology and culture are elements beyond the body that give human nature its content
Humans = embodied form + meaningful content; each impart influence on another and cannot be
separated
Ex: many forms of sexuality, choose to be sexual; no distinct male/female gender – variations that
produced intersexed people – degrees of physical form & personal identity characteristics
The problem of making universal claims about human nature:
While there may be some universal aspects that form every human being, there are wide divergences
(capacity to kill or not).
Do humans have “killer instincts?”
Human history – perpetual violence + war; inherently negative and destructive
However, when war is contemplated, people protest; peace and order has prevailed over warfare
What about PTSD?
Commanders struggle getting soldiers to kill enemies
Soldiers end up psychologically traumatized
If humans had a killer instinct would they be so traumatized by having killed others?
Do humans have a tendency towards peaceful cooperation?
Success of human species based on forming social/ cooperative groups & social bonds; social beings
heavily dependent on each other for survival and well being
If more dominated by competition, aggression, destruction, would have died out as a species long ago
The Seville Statement on Violence
1986 – Scientists convened to formulate statement dispelling myths on violence & human nature:
It is scientifically incorrect to say that:
1. we have inherited a tendency to make war from our animal ancestors
2. war is genetically programmed into our human nature
3. in the course of human evolution there has been a selection for aggressive behavior
4. that humans have a violent brain
5. war is caused by instinct or any single motivation
Problem of biological determinism – from Lombroso to contemporary genetics and evolutionary
biology:
19th century; classify living things based on observable bio characteristics
Explains human behavior from personality to intelligence by identifying aspects of biology, physiology and
genetics
Personality, temperament and criminal behaviour rooted in physiological characteristics (shape of human
skull- craniology, phrenology)
Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) – identify whether person was a criminal by shape of forehead and
bushiness of eyebrows
Rise of anthropometry - the measurement of the human physical anatomy; (body shape & measurement of
sex organs to determine ‘savage inferiority’)
Perpetuate stereotypical ideas about body types and people’s appearances
Distinguish human races influenced by Charles Darwin (1809-1882); racial inferiority to justify slavery &
colonialism part of early expansion of capitalist economy
Biological Determinism - the idea that biology (bio factors) exercises the primary influence on human
social life and actually determines human nature (genetics, hormones, evolution)
Two types of contemporary versions Sociobiology & Evolutionary Psychology – accentuates the human
capacity to kill; destructive activities as normal & inevitable
Apply basic principles of natural selection in animal species to ‘human animal’
Disregards sociological view that humans are unique – most social of all animals – create realities thru
culture & complex language
Tendency to animalize the human causes us to overlook unique qualities
Claims human violence is predetermined, instinctual, expression of innate human nature
Normalizes violence & aggression
Deflects attention away from non-biological causes of war – institutions – obedience, suggestibility, idealism
Social Darwinism: An ideology that is used to justify social inequality as a selection process by natural laws,
where the poor are poor because they are weak and the rich are rich because they are smarter, or more fit.
-Evolution – process whereby living organisms exist in relation to their lived environments; produce
offspring and adapt to and succeed within env or fail and die off as a species
-Adaptation occurs thru natural selection – indv better suited to surviving under condition will breed &
pass their genetic +physiological characteristics to offspring and for successive generations; genetic
potential to produce new traits in next generation so that species survives
The influence of culture makes human nature variable
Fragility of humans – humans most vulnerable and fragile of all animals; rely on social learning & caregiving
for years before we become self-reliant; no fixed complex behaviors, just flexible drive forces and intellectual
potentials
Evolution selected certain traits that allowed humans to survive and colonize the earth: brain power,
erect stance and free hands, flexible sexuality, complex verbal language, omnivores, long life-span
Competition is no more natural than co-operation; just as important for evolutionary success – i.e. algae live in
small organisms in ocean that provide half of O2 on earth
– Gene expression is not fixed –
Epigenetics – environmental factors directly affect the ways that genes express themselves in our biology. Ex:
although cancer is a disease that occurs because of mutated DNA of affected cells, it’s mostly caused by the
bodily intake of carcinogenic toxins which change the expression of genes; toxins trigger genes to cause
growth of cancerous cells.
Culture shapes biology and biology shapes culture
Cultural forms created the environmental context in which certain genes are selected or rejected in the
process of evolution
Ex: evolutionary thinkers speculate that humans of future will be biologically dependent on certain life
technologies because we will have spent a number of generations with technology
Nature and nurture cannot be separated – biology- Genetic predispositions that influence behavior &
temperaments (may be expressed bc of influences during fetal gestation – nutrition, climate, toxins,
exercise) + need for bonds
Do humans have instincts or drives? What is the scientific definition of instinct?
Misconception: humans have biological instincts that determine their behaviour
An instinct is an inborn complex pattern of behaviour that must normally exist in every member of a given
species and, because it is embodied in the genetic code, cannot be overcome by force of will
-Complex, sequential stimulus-response patterns (different from a reflex)
“Maternal instinct” – relationship between mother and child is one based on love, nurturing and caring for the
child
-Protecting child from harm is complex behavior but it is not demonstrated by all mothers and it can be
overcome by force of will (harm, abandon, kill, choose not to have children)
“Survival instinct” – how to account for rates of suicide, drug abuse, alcoholism?
Animal behaviour is guided by instincts and humans are guided by culture
Sexuality, love, eating, empathy, sociability, language, cooperation, competition, tribalism, facial exp, emotion
The elements of human nature are emotionally charged complex patterns of behavior that are rooted in
human desire which come from biological and psychological drive forces
Unlike instincts, which are fixed, drives are flexible and their expression can vary depending on the
individual and cultural expression
Humans also have free will and self-determination; world ruled by instincts would be a system of total
order with no deviant behavior
In many mammals, we see the operation of instinctive behavior mixed with socially learned behaviors
(i.e. lion’s instinct to kill a gazelle can be modified over time if the two are raised together as babies)
Some complex behaviors we would refer to as instincts need to be coaxed to come into expression =
behavioral potentials
i.e. human capacity for language; innate potential, but child must be taught language early in life;
formation of syntax impossible after 6 yrs. when language centers of the brain close off to further
development
birds make nests and bees make hives because they have an instinct to do so-do not have to be taught
(fish reptiles, insects)
higher mammals (dolphins, whales, apes, canines, elephants) and many birds display behavior that is
learned from their own kind; cultural; passed on from parent to young during socialization
The larger the cortex of the brain the less there is reliance on instinct as the basis of behaviour
Social animals learn adaptive behaviors via social learning which includes imitation and mimicry
Whereas humans pass on their cultural behaviors thru language and communication
Socio-biological view of enculturation asserts that it is something that develops in conflict with deep
instincts – successful enculturation involves the taming of instincts that remain active even if subdued
Socialization is a social learning process whereby a person acquires a ‘sense of self’, life-knowledge and
social skills. It takes place through a process of interaction with other social beings. We become human
through the process of interacting with others.
John Bowlby (1907-1990)
Experimentation and development of attachment theory
Babies develop strong attachment bonds to caregivers and a breaking of this bond causes distress and
trauma for the child in the form of separation anxiety.
Children develop a sense of security from the bonds (without it, emotional problems likely to occur later on)
Fredrick Harlow (1905-1981)
Research indicated importance of social bond
Conducted experiments with rhesus monkeys (mammals; need to be taught social behaviour)
What behaviors would arise if infant monkeys were raised in isolation from real mothers? Placed in 2
groups:
One group with surrogate wire mothers and a bottle of food and another group with soft cloth surrogate
mothers and no food
Infant monkeys preferred cloth surrogate even though it offered no food; need for closeness and nurturing
is more powerful than the need for food

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Humans as Social Beings & The Question of Human Nature  Human nature as the main behaviors that define human beings Common assumptions & taken for granted beliefs:  Society is merely a reflection of human nature – does not take into account influences of culture, politics, economics  Assumptions made about human nature can have implications for the decisions made by those in power (who is inferior/superior and on what basis (race, religion, sexuality) Human nature is the result of a combination of factors  Humans are embodied beings but we are not solely defined by our bodies and our biology – psychology and culture are elements beyond the body that give human nature its content  Humans = embodied form + meaningful content; each impart influence on another and cannot be separated  Ex: many forms of sexuality, choose to be sexual; no distinct male/female gender – variations that produced intersexed people – degrees of physical form & personal identity characteristics The problem of making universal claims about human nature:  While there may be some universal aspects that form every human being, there are wide divergences (capacity to kill or not). Do humans have “killer instincts?”  Human history – perpetual violence + war; inherently negative and destructive  However, when war is contemplated, people protest; peace and order has prevailed over warfare What about PTSD?  Commanders struggle getting soldiers to kill enemies  Soldiers end up psychologically traumatized  If humans had a killer instinct would they be so traumatized by having killed others? Do humans have a tendency towards peaceful cooperation?  Success of human species based on forming social/ cooperative groups & social bonds; social beings heavily dependent on each other for survival and well being  If more dominated by competition, aggression, destruction, would have died out as a species long ago The Seville Statement on Violence 1986 – Scientists convened to formulate statement dispelling myths on violence & human nature: It is scientifically incorrect to say that: 1. we have inherited a tendency to make war from our animal ancestors 2. war is genetically programmed into our human nature 3. in the course of human evolution there has been a selection for aggressive behavior 4. that humans have a violent brain 5. war is caused by instinct or any single motivation Problem of biological determinism – from Lombroso to contemporary genetics and evolutionary biology:  19 century; classify living things based on observable bio characteristics  Explains human behavior from personality to intelligence by identifying aspects of biology, physiology and genetics  Personality, temperament and criminal behaviour rooted in physiological characteristics (shape of human skull- craniology, phrenology)  Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) – identify whether person was a criminal by shape of forehead and bushiness of eyebrows  Rise of anthropometry - the measurement of the human physical anatomy; (body shape & measurement of sex organs to determine ‘savage inferiority’)  Perpetuate stereotypical ideas about body types and people’s appearances  Distinguish human races influenced by Charles Darwin (1809-1882); racial inferiority to justify slavery & colonialism part of early expansion of capitalist economy  Biological Determinism - the idea that biology (bio factors) exercises the primary influence on human social life and actually determines human nature (genetics, hormones, evolution)  Two types of contemporary versions Sociobiology & Evolutionary Psychology – accentuates the human capacity to kill; destructive activities as normal & inevitable  Apply basic principles of natural selection in animal species to ‘human animal’  Disregards sociological view that humans are unique – most social of all animals – create realities thru culture & complex language  Tendency to animalize the human causes us to overlook unique qualities  Claims human violence is predetermined, instinctual, expression of innate human nature  Normalizes violence & aggression  Deflects attention away from non-biological causes of war – institutions – obedience, suggestibility, idealism Social Darwinism: An ideology that is used to justify social inequality as a selection process by natural laws, where the poor are poor because they are weak and the rich are rich because they are smarter, or more fit. - Evolution – process whereby living organisms exist in relation to their lived environments; produce offspring and adapt to and succeed within env or fail and die off as a species - Adaptation occurs thru natural selection – indv better suited to surviving under condition will breed & pass their genetic +physiological characteristics to offspring and for successive generations; genetic potential to produce new traits in next generation so that species survives The influence of culture makes human nature variable Fragility of humans – humans most vulnerable and fragile of all animals; rely on social learning & caregiving for years before we become self-reliant; no fixed complex behaviors, just flexible drive forces and intellectual potentials Evolution selected certain traits that allowed humans to survive and colonize the earth: brain power, erect stance and free hands, flexible sexuality, complex verbal language, omnivores, long life-span Competition is no more natural than co-operation; just as important for evolutionary success – i.e. algae live in small organisms in ocean that provide half of O2 on earth – Gene expression is not fixed – Epigenetics – environmental factors directly affect the ways that genes express themselves in our biology. Ex: although cancer is a disease that occurs because of mutated DNA of affected cells, it’s mostly caused by the bodily intake of carcinogenic toxins which change the expression of genes; toxins trigger genes to cause growth of cancerous cells. Culture shapes biology and biology shapes culture  Cultural forms created the environmental context in which certain genes are selected or rejected in the process of evolution  Ex: evolutionary thinkers speculate that humans of future will be biologically dependent on certain life technologies because we will have spent a number of generations with technology  Nature and nurture cannot be separated – biology- Genetic predispositions that influence behavior & temperaments (may be expressed bc of influences during fetal gestation – nutrition, climate, toxins, exercise) + need for bonds Do humans have instincts or drives? What is the scientific definition of instinct? Misconception: humans have biological instincts that determine their behaviour An instinct is an inborn complex pattern of behaviour that must normally exist in every member of a given species and, because it is embodied in the genetic code, cannot be overcome by force of will - Complex, sequential stimulus-response patterns (different from a reflex) “Maternal instinct” – relationship between mother and child is one based on love, nurturing and caring for the child - Protecting child from harm is complex behavior but it is not demonstrated by all mothers and it can be overcome by force of will (harm, abandon, kill, choose not to have children) “Survival instinct” – how to account for rates of suicide, drug abuse, alcoholism? Animal behaviour is guided by instincts and humans are guided by culture Sexuality, love, eating, empathy, sociability, language, cooperation, competition, tribalism, facial exp, emotion  The elements of human nature are emotionally charged complex patterns of behavior that are rooted in human desire which come from biological and psychological drive forces  Unlike instincts, which are fixed, drives are flexible and their expression can vary depending on the individual and cultural expression  Humans also have free will and self-determination; world ruled by instincts would be a system of total order with no deviant behavior  In many mammals, we see the operation of instinctive behavior mixed with socially learned behaviors (i.e. lion’s instinct to kill a gazelle can be modified over time if the two are raised together as babies)  Some complex behaviors we would refer to as instincts need to be coaxed to come into expression = behavioral potentials  i.e. human capacity for language; innate potential, but child must be taught language early in life; formation of syntax impossible after 6 yrs. when language centers of the brain close off to further development  birds make nests and bees make hives because they have an instinct to do so-do not have to be taught (fish reptiles, insects)  higher mammals (dolphins, whales, apes, canines, elephants) and many birds display behavior that is learned from their own kind; cultural; passed on from parent to young during socialization  The larger the cortex of the brain the less there is reliance on instinct as the basis of behaviour  Social animals learn adaptive behaviors via social learning which includes imitation and mimicry  Whereas humans pass on their cultural behaviors thru language and communication  Socio-biological view of enculturation asserts that it is something that develops in conflict with deep instincts – successful enculturation involves the taming of instincts that remain active even if subdued Socialization is a social learning process whereby a person acquires a ‘sense of self’, life-knowledge and social skills. It takes place through a process of interaction with other social beings. We become human through the process of interacting with others. John Bowlby (1907-1990) • Experimentation and development of attachment theory • Babies develop strong attachment bonds to caregivers and a breaking of this bond causes distress and trauma for the child in the form of separation anxiety. • Children develop a sense of security from the bonds (without it, emotional problems likely to occur later on) Fredrick Harlow (1905-1981) • Research indicated importance of social bond • Conducted experiments with rhesus monkeys (mammals; need to be taught social behaviour) • What behaviors would arise if infant monkeys were raised in isolation from real mothers? Placed in 2 groups: • One group with surrogate wire mothers and a bottle of food and another group with soft cloth surrogate mothers and no food • Infant monkeys preferred cloth surrogate even though it offered no food; need for closeness and nurturing is more powerful than the need for food • The longer infant monkeys spent separated from contact with other monkeys = more disturbed behavior (pacing in cages, self-mutilation) • When introduced to normally raised monkeys, oddness made them victim of attacks Both experiments have had implications for maternal care practices: • Newborns no longer put into incubators after birth • Humans and infant primates = fragile creatures emotionally, require nurturing + care to be fully realized as members of their species The importance of early social relationships in forming a person’s development as a social being – social bonds – the human need for sustained, supportive, caring contact with others. Human children as moral beings? Are babies antisocial or pro- social? “Born to be Good” • Experiments done on children 3 months old show a distinct preference for goodness in others • Born with innate sense of justice that supports group solidarity; selects against unfair behavior • Level of morality babies start off with is primitive & limited, not complete without cultural influence • Level of pro-social behavior changes with age; 8 years, can deteriorate and be replaced with competitive/selfish behavior • Innate capacity to act in morally responsible, pro-social ways is a natural pre-disposition that needs to be developed and rewarded to be maintained – thalenberg suggests – group loyalty but capacity to change Feral Children • Children abandoned at birth or at a very young age who managed to survive being raised by wolves, dogs or chimpanzees or raised in isolation by ill-meaning parents; no interaction with other humans • Inability to display normal wide range of emotions/ not fully capable humans: • Major language deficits, behavioral/emotional abnormalities • Oxana Malaya – Russian girl raised by dogs, incapable of language, not self-aware, has responded to some rehabilitation (minimal language capacity, is bipedal) What are the implications of social deprivation for children? The social implications of these studies for human children in society are equated with conditions of: poverty, lack of learning and adequate socialization and support, proper parental love and nurturing. The effects of such deprivation can have serious negative consequences for life, and can also make absent social skills that will affect following generations. The problem of the ‘animalization of the human’ – seeing humans as “animals that live under the law of the jungle” • Abhorrent human behavior not due to evil human nature, but the inability to fashion a world of material and gender equality, where conflict and competition over resources can be reduced • Theories of instinctual human aggressiveness, supports the theory that humans need to be controlled and that primal instincts need to be repressed to maintain social order • Anarchy and chaos seen as likely to emerge in absence of social regulation and cultural development • Violence should not be seen as atavism – where aggressive behavior is attributed to lack of evolutionary development • Animalist ideology – aggression assumed to be located in animal irrationality; animal behaviors extrapolated onto humans • Either one can become dominant based on cultural value system but its peaceful cooperation and social group formation that has allowed humans to become dominant species The ‘naturalization of violence’ - an ideology of human behaviour which makes violence seem “just natural” and inevitable rather than something that is largely socially directed, and is the action of individuals & groups who consciously decide to engage in violence. It also masks the fact that violence is primarily used as a technique of social control, over individuals and over groups. If we believe that violence is inevitable and normal or naturally programmed in humans then we are less likely to do anything to prevent it (more accurate to say it results from free will; by powerful decision makers) Impediment to prospects, capacity for peace, non-violence and social conditions free from domination Human culture is the complex pattern of lifestyles, beliefs and behaviors that aim to cultivate, sustain and preserve life, and are specific to a human group and defines its identity; includes technologies and physical objects which aid in human survival, symbolic systems of language, shared meaning and communication, social institutions, micro-social rules of social behaviour (norms & codes of social interaction), macro-social values and belief systems that combine to create a unified way of life that is part of the larger society in which humans live Ideational – ideas that aim to guide people in effort to survive organize, give meaning to life: religion, social custom, beliefs, laws Preservation of life celebrated in creations of art, technology, music, food Material: technological creations that humans make to aid in their own preservation: automobiles, arrows, social institutions – social technology; contains both material & ideational elements of culture Elements of Culture Culture is Complex • Most complex term in English language; refers to many things (definition) • Developed to serve as knowledge guides for ppl to make sense of their world & develop way of living that has a higher purpose beyond mere survival Culture is Universal • All humans have some form of culture that shapes social world and way of life • Cannot survive without learned techniques of survival • Helps us understand, adapt to, modify our physical, social, mental environment; survive and develop meaning of life • Being human means having a cultural way of life Culture is Relative • Cultural patterns of belief and behavior are specific to a variety of different groups located in a specific time and place • What is culturally normal for one human group may seem odd to another group (
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit