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HRM 2600 Final: Definitions for all Chapters

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Human Resources Management
HRM 2600
Michael Mc Garry

CHAPTER ONE Change management: Change management is a systematic way of bringing about and managing both organizational changes and changes on the individual level Collaborative software: Software that allows workers to interface and share information with one another electronically Corporate social responsibility: The responsibility of the firm to act in the best interests of the people and communities affected by its activities Downsizing: Planned elimination of jobs Employee leasing: The process of dismissing employees who are then hired by a leasing company (which handles all HR-related activities) and contracting with that company to lease back the employees Furloughing: A situation in which an organization asks or requires employees to take time off for either no pay or reduced pay Globalization: The trend to opening up foreign markets to international trade and investment Human capital: The knowledge, skills, and capabilities of individuals that have economic value to an organization Human resources information system (HRIS) : A computerized system that provides current and accurate data for purposes of control and decision making Human resources management (HRM) :The process of managing human talent to achieve an organization’s objectives Knowledge workers: Workers whose responsibilities extend beyond the physical execution of work to include planning, decision making, and problem solving Line managers: Non-HR managers who are responsible for overseeing the work of other employees Nearshoring: The process of moving jobs closer to one’s home country Offshoring: The business practice of sending jobs to other countries Outsourcing: Contracting out work that was formerly done by employees Proactive change: Change initiated to take advantage of targeted opportunities Reactive changes: Change that occurs after external forces have already affected performance Reengineering: The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed Six Sigma: A set of principles and practices whose core ideas include understanding customer needs, doing things right the first time, and striving for continuous improvement • CHAPTER TWO Attrition: A natural departure of employees from organizations through quits, retirements, and deaths Balanced scorecard (BSC): A measurement framework that helps managers translate strategic goals into operational objectives Benchmarking: The process of measuring one’s own services and practice against the recognized leaders in order to identify areas for improvement Core capabilities: Integrated knowledge sets within an organization that distinguish it from its competitors and deliver value to customers Core values: The strong and enduring beliefs and principles that the company uses as a foundation for its decisions Cultural audits: Audits of the culture and quality of work life in an organization Environmental scanning: Systematic monitoring of the major external forces Influencing the organization Hiring freeze: A practice whereby new workers are not hired as planned or workers who have left the organization are not replaced Human capital readiness: The process of evaluating the availability of critical talent in a company and comparing it to the firm’s supply Human resources planning (HRP): The process of anticipating and providing for the movement of people into, within, and out of an organization Management forecasts : The opinions (judgments) of supervisors, department managers, experts, or others knowledgeable about the organization’s future employment needs Markov analysis: A method for tracking the pattern of employee movements through various jobs Mission: The basic purpose of the organization as well as its scope of operations Organizational capability: The capacity of the organization to act and change in pursuit of sustainable competitive advantage Quality of fill: A metric designed to assess how well new hires are performing on the job Replacement charts: Listings of current jobholders and people who are potential replacements if an opening occurs Severance pay: A lump-sum payment given to terminated employees by an employer at the time of an employer-initiated termination Skill inventories: Files of personnel education, experience, interests, and skills that allow managers to quickly match job openings with employee backgrounds Staffing tables: Graphic representations of all organizational jobs, along with the numbers of employees currently occupying those jobs and future (monthly or yearly) employment requirements Strategic human resources management (SHRM): The pattern of human resources deployments and activities that enable an organization to achieve its strategic goals Strategic planning: Procedures for making decisions about the organization’s long-term goals and strategies Strategic vision: A statement about where the company is going and what it can become in the future; clarifies the long-term direction of the company and its strategic intent Succession planning: The process of identifying, developing, and tracking key individuals for executive positions SWOT analysis: A comparison of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for strategy formulation purposes Termination: Practice initiated by an employer to separate an employee from the organization permanently Trend analysis: A quantitative approach to forecasting labour demand based on an organizational index such as sales Value creation: What the firm adds to a product or service by virtue of making it; the amount of benefits provided by the product or service once the costs of making it are subtracted Values-based hiring: The process of outlining the behaviours that exemplify a firm’s corporate culture and then hiring people who are a fit for them • • CHAPTER THREE Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ): A justifiable reason for discrimination based on business reasons of safety or effectiveness Concentration: Term applied to designated groups whose numbers in a particular occupation or level are high relative to their numbers in the labour market Designated groups: Women, visible minorities, Aboriginal people, and persons with disabilities who have been disadvantaged in employment Diversity management: The optimization of an organization’s multicultural workforce to reach business objectives Employment equity: The employment of individuals in a fair and nonbiased manner Flow data: Data that provide a profile of the employment decisions affecting designated groups Reasonable accommodation: Attempt by employers to adjust the working conditions or schedules of employees with disabilities or religious preferences Sexual harassment: Unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature in the working environment Stock data: Data showing the status of designated groups in occupational categories and compensation levels Systemic discrimination: The exclusion of members of certain groups through the application of employment policies or practices based on criteria that are not job related Underutilization: Term applied to designated groups that are not utilized or represented in the employer’s workforce proportional to their numbers in the labour market CHAPTER FOUR Critical incident method: A job analysis method by which important job tasks are identified for job success Employee empowerment: Granting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do Employee involvement groups (EIs): Groups of employees who meet to resolve problems or offer suggestions for organizational improvement Employee teams: An employee contributions technique whereby work functions are structured for groups rather than for individuals and team members are given discretion in matters traditionally considered management prerogatives, such as process improvements, product or service development, and individual work assignments Ergonomics: An interdisciplinary approach to designing equipment and systems that can be easily and efficiently used by human beings Flextime: Flexible working hours that permit employees the option of choosing daily starting and quitting times provided that they work a set number of hours per day or week Industrial engineering: A field of study concerned with analyzing work methods and establishing time standards Job: A group of related activities and duties Job analysis: The process of obtaining information about jobs by determining the duties, tasks, or activities of jobs Job characteristics model: A job design theory that purports that three psychological states of a jobholder result in improved work performance, internal motivation, and lower absenteeism and turnover 1.experiencing meaningfulness of the work performed 2.responsibility for work outcomes 3. and knowledge of the results of the work performed Job description: A statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job to be performed Job design: An outgrowth of job analysis that improves jobs through technological and human considerations to enhance organizational efficiency and employee job satisfaction Job enrichment: Enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties to make the work more rewarding or satisfying Job family: A group of individual jobs with similar characteristics Job sharing: The arrangement whereby two part-time employees perform a job that otherwise would be held by one full-time employee Job specification: A statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities of the person who is to perform the job Position: The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ): A questionnaire covering 194 different tasks that, by means of a five-point scale, seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in performing a particular job Task inventory analysis: An organization-specific list of tasks and their descriptions used as a basis to identify components of jobs Telecommuting: Use of personal computers, networks, and other communications technology to do work in the home that is traditionally done in the workplace Virtual team: A team with widely dispersed members linked together through computer and telecommunications technology CHAPTER 5 9-box grid: A comparative diagram that includes appraisal and assessment data to allow managers to easily see an employee’s actual and potential performance Applicant tracking system (ATS): A software application recruiters use to post job openings, screen résumés, contact potential candidates for interviews via email, and track the time and costs related to hiring people Branding: A company’s efforts to help existing and prospective workers understand why it is a desirable place to work Career counselling: The process of discussing with employees their current job activities and performance, personal and career interests and goals, personal skills, and suitable career development objectives Career networking: A profile of a worker developed by studying an organization’s top performers to recruit similar types of people Career paths: Lines of advancement in an occupational field within an organization Career plateau: A situation in which, for either organizational or personal reasons, the probability of moving up the career ladder is low employee leasing Employee profile: A profile of a worker developed by studying an organization’s top performers to recruit similar types of people Fast-track program: A program that encourages new managers with high potential to remain with an organization by enabling them to advance more rapidly than those with less potential) Global sourcing: The business practice of searching for and utilizing goods sources from around the world Internal labour market: Labour market in which workers are hired into entry-level jobs and higher levels are filled from within Job progressions: The hierarchy of jobs a new employee might experience, ranging from a starting job to jobs that successively require more knowledge and/or skill Mentors: Individuals who coach, advise, and encourage individuals of lesser rank) Nepotism: A preference for hiring relatives of current employees Outplacement services: Services provided by organizations to help terminated employees find a new job Passive job seekers: People who are not looking for jobs but could be persuaded to take new ones given the right opportunity Promotion: A change of assignment to a job at a higher level in the organization Realistic job preview (RJP): Informing applicants about all aspects of the job, including both its desirable and undesirable facets Recruiting process outsourcing (RPO): The practice of outsourcing an organization’s recruiting function to an outside firm Relocation services: Services provided to an employee who is transferred to a new location, which might include help in moving, selling a home, orienting to a new culture, and/or learning a new language Re-recruiting: The process of keeping track of and maintaining relationships with former employees to see if they would be willing to return to the firm Sabbatical: An extended period of time in which an employee leaves an organization to pursue other activities and later returns to his or her job Time-to-fill metric: The number of days from when a job opening is approved to the date the candidate is selected Transfer: Placement of an individual in another job for which the duties, responsibilities, status, and remuneration are approximately equal to those of the previous job Yield ratio: The percentage of applicants from a recruitment source that make it to the next stage of the selection process CHAPTER SIX Assessment centre: A process by which individuals are evaluated as they participate in a series of situations that resemble what they might need to handle the job Behavioural description interview: An interview in which an applicant is asked questions about what he or she did in a given situation Compensatory model : A selection decision model in which a high score in one area can make up for a low score in another area Concurrent validity: The extent to which test scores (or other predictor information) match criterion obtained at about the same time from current employees Construct validity:The extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait Content validity: The extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job Criterion-related validity: The extent to which a selection tool predicts, or significantly correlates with, important elements of work behaviour) Cross-validation (Verifying the results obtained from a validation study by administering a test or test battery to a different sample (drawn from the same population) Multiple cutoff model: A selection-decision model that requires an applicant to achieve some minimum level of proficiency on all selection dimensions Multiple hurdle model: A sequential strategy in which only the applicants with the highest scores at an initial test stage go on to subsequent stages: Nondirective interview: An interview in which the applicant is allowed the maximum amount of freedom in determining the course of the discussion, while the interviewer carefully refrains from influencing the applicant’s remarks: Panel interview: An interview in which a board of interviewers questions and observes a single candidate Predictive validity: The extent to which applicants’ test scores match criterion data obtained from those applicants/employees after they have been on the job for an indefinite period Pre employment test: An objective and standardized measure of a sample of behaviour that is used to gauge a person’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) relative to other individuals Reliability: The degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time Selection: The process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings Selection ratio: The number of applicants compared to the number of people to be hired Sequential interview: A format in which a candidate is interviewed by multiple people, one right after another Situational interview: An interview in which an applicant is given a hypothetical incident and asked how he or she would respond to it Structured interview: An interview in which a set of standardized questions with an established set of answers is used Validity: The degree to which a test or selection procedure measures a person’s attributes Video résumes ́ :Short video clips that highlight applicants’ qualifications beyond what they can communicate on their reś umé CHAPTER SEVEN apprenticeship training: A system of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work behaviour modelling: An approach that demonstrates desired behaviour and gives trainees the chance to practise and role-play those behaviours and receive feedback behaviour modification: A technique that operates on the principle that behaviour that is rewarded, or positively reinforced, will be exhibited more frequently in the future, whereas behaviour that is penalized or unrewarded will decrease in frequency benchmarking blended learning: The use of multiple training methods to achieve optimal learning on the part of trainees chief ethics officer: A high-ranking manager directly responsible for fostering the ethical climate within the firm chief learning officers: A high-ranking manager directly responsible for fostering employee learning and development within the organization competency assessment: Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision- oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs cooperative training: A training program that c
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