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Midterm Review.docx

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York University
Human Resources Management
HRM 3450
Ron Ophir

Midterm Review: Key Terms Chapter One: Introduction Access discrimination: when people are denied employment opportunities, or “access” to jobs, based on their race, sex, age, or other factors not related to productivity Diversity: real or perceived differences among people in race, ethnicity, ex, age, physical and mental ability, sexual orientation, religion, work and family status, weight and appearance, and other identity-based Diversity Climate: individual, intergroup, and organizational level factors that comprise the atmosphere for different groups and of support for or resistance to diversity in an organization Identity Group: the collectivities people use to categorize themselves and others Inclusion: the degree to which the different voices of a diverse workforce are respected and heard Labour force: all persons age 16 and over working or looking for work Labour market discrimination: the valuation in the labour market of personal characteristics of applicants and workers that are unrelated to productivity Participation rate: the ratio of persons age 16 and over who are working or looking for work divided by the population of persons ages 16 and over Primary labour market: jobs in large, bureaucratic organizations that have opportunities for advancement and include lucrative retirement, medical, and vacation benefits Secondary labour market: jobs, often in the service sector, that offers few or no opportunities for advancement, nor medical, retirement or vacation benefits Treatment discrimination: when people are employed but are treated differently once employed, receiving fewer job-related rewards, resources, or opportunities than they should receive based on job-related criteria Underemployed: worked employed at less than their full employment potential, including those working part-time, temporary, or intermittent jobs but desiring regular, full-time work; those working for lower wages than their skills would imply or in positions requiring considerably lower skills than they posses; and those involuntarily working outside their fields Chapter Two: Theories and Thinking about Diversity Ambivalent sexism: the simultaneous holding of both hostile and „benevolent‟ sexist beliefs about women, for example “women are incompetent at work” and “women must be protected” Aversive racism: the holding of egalitarian values and beliefs that one is unprejudiced but still possessing negative feelings and beliefs about racial issues and minority group members Benevolent sexism: a set of interrelated attitudes toward women that are sexist while they are perceived as positive by the attitude holder Descriptive stereotyping: perceptions about how people do or will behave, based on their group memberships Discrimination: differential and pejorative actions that serve to limit that social, political, or economic opportunities of members of particular groups Egalitarian: one who believes in human equality, particularly regarding social, political, and economic rights and privileges Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when evaluating the behavior of out-group members Hostile sexism: antipathy toward women based on faulty and inflexible generalizations Internalized racism: the acceptance and belief by members of devalued races in negative messages about their own abilities and intrinsic worth and those of others of the
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