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HRM 3450 - Final Exam Preparation.doc

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Department
Human Resources Management
Course
HRM 3450
Professor
Ron Ophir
Semester
Fall

Description
Module3AbilityBellChapter14PhysicalandMentalAbilityKeyTerms1Essentialfunctionsjobfunctionsthatarethebasisfortheexistenceofthejob2Majorlifeactivitiesfunctionssuchasselfcareperformingmanualtaskswalkingspeakinghearingbreathinglearningandworking3Marginalfunctionsjobfunctionsthataresecondaryinimportancetoessentialfunctions4Physicalormentalimperilmentanypsychologicaldisorderorconditioncosmeticdisfigurementoranatomicallossaffectingatleastoneofthebodyssystemsieneurologicalmusculoskeletalsensoryrespiratorycardiovascularorothersoranymentalorpsychologicaldisordersuchasmentalretardationorganicbrainsyndromeemotionalormentalillnessandspecificlearningdisabilities5Reasonableaccommodationachangethatcanbeimplementedtoenableaqualifiedpersonwithadisabilitytoperformessentialjobfunctionswithoutundulyburdeningtheemployerunduehardship6Substantiallylimitedtheinabilitytoperformoneormoreofthemajorlifeactivitiesthatmostpeopleinthegeneralpopulationcanperformorasignificantrestrictioninthemannerorlengthofperformanceofmajorlifeactivitiesthatmostpeopleinthepopulationcanperform7UnduehardshipsignificantdifficultyorexpenserelativetotheemployerssizefinancialresourcesandornatureandstructureoftheorganizationEssentialandMarginalFunctionsHowdoesanorganizationknowifanapplicantwithadisabilityisqualifiedAqualifiedpersonisonewhocanperformtheessentialfunctionsofthejobinquestionwithorwithoutareasonableaccommodationEssentialfunctionsarethosethatarethebasisfortheexistenceofthejobifthosefunctionswerenotrequiredtherewouldbenoneedforthejobMarginalfunctionsarethosethataresecondarytothejobtheapplicantoftendoesthembuteveniftheyarenotperformedthejobwouldstillberequiredThusaqualifiedapplicantoremployeemustbeabletoperformtheessentialbutnotmarginalfunctionswithorwithoutareasonableaccommodationReasonableAccommodationWhatisreasonableaccommodationandhowdoesonedetermineifsomethingisreasonableornotInsomecasesareasonableaccommodationmustbemadesothatapersoncanperformtheessentialjobfunctionsAreasonableaccommodationisonethattheemployercanimplementtoenablethequalifiedpersontoperformessentialjobfunctionswithoutcausingunduehardshiptotheemployerIfprovidingaccommodationwouldrequiresignificantdifficultyorexpenserelativetotheemployerssizefinancialresourcesetctheemployerwouldfaceunduehardshipandwouldnothavetoprovidereasonableaccommodationThusunduehardshipvariesbyemployerwhatwouldbeconsideredforWalMartreasonableaccommodationwouldbeunduehardshipforasmallemployerwith50employeesResearchindicatesthatmostemployeeswithdisabilitiesdonotrequireaccommodationsbutforthosewhodomanyoftheaccommodations20costnothingandmost71cost500orlessAccommodatingemployeeswhetherornottheyrequireaccommodationisofteneasyandinexpensivegeneratesgoodwillandincreasesretentionandproductivityMedicalExaminationsTherearestrictguidelinesforemployersaboutquestionstheymayaskofjobapplicantsrequirementsformedicalexamsandidentificationofadisabilityOnlyaftermakingacontingentjoboffermayemployersaskapplicantstoanswermedicalquestionsortakeamedicalexamIfanyapplicantisaskedtotakeamedicalexamallapplicantsshouldbeaskedtodosoThiswayemployersarefocusingonperformanceofthejobnotwhetherornotanapplicantappearstohaveadisabilitythatmaymakehimorherunabletoperformwellBecausemanyimpairmentsarevisibleaskingabouttheabilitytoperformthetaskjobitsagoodpracticeandavoidsdiscriminationagainstpeopleperceivedtohavedisabilities1PopulationeducationandemploymentWomenaremorelikelytohaveadisabilitythanmen124versus117becausewomenhavelongerlifespans145ofpeoplewithdisabilitiesthatparticipateinthelabourforceareunemployedcomparedto9ofthepopulationwithoutadisabilityUnemploymentratesforpeoplewithdisabilitiesvarybyraceandethnicity83ofWhitesand72ofAsianswithdisabilitiesareunemployedincomparisonto145ofBlacksand119ofHispanics258ofpeoplewithaworkdisabilityhavelessthanahighschooldiploma376haveahighschooldiploma247haveanassociatesdegreeorsomecollegeand118haveabachelorsdegreeorhigherThenumberofpeoplewithdisabilitieswithahighschooldegreeis16higherand16fewerpeoplewithdisabilitieshavecompletedsomecollegeormoreTheselowerlevelsofeducationachievementmaybeareflectionofthebarriersfacedbypeoplewithdisabilitiesinobtainingeducationevenwhentheirdisabilitiesarenotlearningrelatedWhencomparingearningsandemploymentofpeopleatthesamelevelofeducationwithandwithoutworkdisabilitiesthosewithdisabilitieshaveloweremploymentearningsBecausepeoplewithdisabilitiesareconsiderablymorelikelytoworkoccasionallyandparttimeandpeoplewithoutdisabilitiesaremorelikelytoworkfulltimeyearroundearningsdisparitiesareactuallygreaterEmploymentExperiencesandPeoplewithDisabilities1IntellectualDisabilitiesPeopleareconsideredtohaveanintellectualdisabilitywhentheirIQisbelow70or75whentheyhavesignificantlimitationsinconceptualsocialandpracticalskillsneededforeverydaylifeandwhenthedisabilityoriginatedbeforeage18Only31ofthosewithintellectualdisabilitiesareemployedalthoughmanymorewanttowork2TheGlassCeilingWallsandSecondaryJobMarketsforPeoplewithDisabilitiesMuchlikewomenandminoritiespeoplewithdisabilitiesexperienceaglassceilingthatimpedestheirachievementbeyondcertainloworganizationallevelsandtendtobesegregatedintocertainjobmarketsTheyareunderrepresentedinmanagementandprofessionalpositionsandoverrepresentedinlowerpaidserviceandoperatorjobsWhitemaleswithdisabilitiesworkathigherlevelsandhavehigherearningsthanwomenandpeopleofcolourwithdisabilitiesInparticularwomenofcolourwhohaveadisabilitysuffertriplejeopardyfacingobstaclesduetoracesexanddisability3PerceptionsofPerformanceInadequaciesPeoplewithdisabilitiesmayexperienceaccessandtreatmentdiscriminationItappearsthatmuchofthediscriminationoccursbecauseofpeoplesperceptionsthatthedisabilitywillimpedeperformanceeventhoughtheseperceptionsareofteninaccurateEmployersbelievethatpeoplewithdisabilitieswillhavealowerorthesameperformanceasthosewithoutdisabilitiesbutmanydisabilitieshavenoeffectonjobperformance4WhenEmployeesAcquireaDisabilityBecausesomedisabilitiesareacquiredemployersneedtotakemeasurestoensurethatcurrentemployeeswhoacquireadisabilityareallowedtocontinueworkingwithoutdiscriminationMostaccommodationscostnothingandtheremainderaretypicallyinexpensiveUnfortunatelysomeemployersareunawareoftheirresponsibilitiesandendupbeingsuedCustomerswithDisabilitiesThinkingofpeoplewithdisabilitiesasdesiredandvaluedcustomersandusinginclusivemarketingmaterialscanprovideorganizationswithsomeofthebenefitsdiscussedbyCoxandBlakeegmarketingInadditionintheUSthefederalgovernmentprovidestaxincentivesfororganizationstoremoveaccessbarrierstotheirfacilitiesprovideaccessibleservicesortakeotherstepstoimproveaccessibilityforcustomerswithdisabilitiesCompliancewithlawsrelatedtorightsofaccessandaccommodationcanhelporganizationsreachthegrowingmarketofpeoplewithdisabilitiesandatthesametimemaketheirorganizationsmorecomfortableforpeoplewithoutdisabilitiesEventhoughmanyofthebabyboomersdonothaveadisabilitytheyallcanbenefitfromlargerprintsmorespacebetweenaislesinstoresandrestaurantsandmanyothersRecommendationsforIndividuals2
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