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HRM 4480 (1)

mid term notes.docx

39 Pages

Human Resources Management
Course Code
HRM 4480
Soosan Latham

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HRM 4480Lecture 1 Understanding crossculture management1Diverse Definitions of CultureHistoricalIt is social heritage or tradition that is passed on to future generationsBehavioralIt is shared learned human behavior a way of lifeNormativeIt is deals values or rules for livingFunctionalIt is the way humans solve problems of adapting to the environment to living togetherMentalIt is complex of ideas or learned habits that inhibits impulses and distinguish people from animalsStructuralIt consists of patterned and interrelated ideas symbols or behaviorSymbolicIt is based on arbitrarily assigned meanings that are shared by a societyWhat is cultureCulture is a code of attitudes norms and values the way of thinking Culture determinesHow we see ourselvesHow we see the world Culture is not right or wrong inherited about individual behaviorExploring cultureThere are three levels1observationbehaviorArtefacts and attitudes can be observed in terms of architecture rituals dress code language eating and so on2interviews and surveysbeliefs and valuesThe second level culture is to do with norms and values Beliefs or norms are statements of fact about the way things are There are the cultural rules which explain what is happening at level one and determine what is right or wrong Values are related to general preferences as to what is good or bad how things should be 3InterpretationAssumptionsIt is the deepest level and has to do with basic assumptions This is difficult to explore and what lies there can only be constructed through interpretation of what is happening at the other levels Interpretation involves trying to explain why we act according to particular rules or in line with some particular values 2Societal values systemTraditional society Religion plays an important role EGArab countriesRational society Interests of the individual come first EG GermanySociety where materialism is predominantEGexcommunist countriesPostmodern society Tolerant and democratic EGScandinavia3levels of cultural influence on businessCulture and nationThe culturenation distinction can have a bearing on the way org operate If culture is defined as a set of historically evolved learned and shared values attitudes and meanings then this has an influence on org on both macro and micro levelMacro level the nation in terms of its laws and economic institutions must be take into account by org going about their business The considerations are not only subject to change through political changes in government but also through the desire of the nations rulers to share legislation at social and economic level with other nations within some kind of associationMicro level the org is influenced by cultural elements relating to EREE relationships and to behaviour among EEs Those wishing to introduce any changes with a view to improving management effectiveness or increasing productivity must take account of these elements when implementing such changes National cultureElements that contribute to the creation of a national culture are Physical environmentHistory of the nationInstitutions that contribute to the establishment of a national culture FamilyReligionEducationFamily is the basic social unit where the culture of a particular environment is instilled in a human from infancyReligious beliefs can have a significant effect on a persons view of the world It does not mean people have to believe But religion has helped in all sorts of direct and indirect ways to shape the environment in which people liveThe value system on which education is based and the choices it makes in terms of the curriculum both help in formation of a culture particularly where educational institutions are well developed Mass communication mediaThe increasing presence of mass media has given a new meaning to shared experience The mass media have created a new common dimension in which people can share experiences if they choose to
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