1. Please define and describe the practice of epidemiology? Why, according to
the course text and lectures, is epidemiology not sufficient as a practice and
explanation for the health of the population? [4 marks]
Ans. Epidemiology – branch of medicine that studies the incidence and
prevalence of diseases and attempts to identify their causes. The focus is on risk
factors in an individual that causes unhealthy organs or disease. Action is
largely directed to behavioural interventions. Either the individual has to take-
up, modify or desist from some type of behaviour, or purchase a drug, etc.
Epidemiology is not sufficient as a practice/explanation because health is more
of a social problem (i.e., social determinants of health) than it is an individual
2. Please identify the (Un)lucky seven social determinants of health as given to
us in the article by Lucal and Ender in our course kit. [3 marks].
Ans. (Un)lucky seven: race/ethnicity, gender, class, sexuality, level of physical
ability, age, or religious affiliation.
3. Please describe the ways in which the provision of health care and the
hierarchy of health providers reflect the gendered character of our society. [5
Ans. Patients experience care as a function of gender. Women have less power
and less satisfying encounters with medical care. Women’s symptoms are more
likely to be dismissed as psychological. For example, chest pains related to
Health care providers also reflect gendered hierarchy.
Doctors largely male; nurses, female
Low-paid are primarily female
W/i medical profession, women concentrated in family medicine and pediatrics.
4. Our course has argued that violence against women is abetted or
perpetuated with the help of social institutions. Please identify three of those
social institutions that are said to help perpetuate violence against women.
Finally, please describe the ways in which any one of these social institutions
can be said to perpetuate that violence against women. [5 marks]
Ans. Perpetuated by criminal justice system, religious organizations, hospitals
and health care agencies. In terms of hospitals and clinics, only one in ten battered women who used
emergency services were identified as battered by a hospital. Consequently,
women absorb message that battery is a source of shame and must be kept
5. According to the lecture and the course readings, women of colour are said to
suffer from double victimization in terms of domestic violence. Please
describe and elaborate what is meant by the concept of double victimization.
Ans. The sexism that is endemic to most communities means that violence
against women is often dismissed. Further, as women of colour, they are
expected to persevere in the face of domestic violence because their families
and communities, already suffering the ill effects of racism, need them and their
support. Thus encouraged to deny both the existence and the extent of the
abuse. To report domestic abuse is to risk exposing men of colour to