Please answer the following questions as thoroughly as you can, using examples, when
asked for or when appropriate, to support or illustrate your answers.
1. (a) Please define the term public policy. [3 marks]
(b) What are two possible things that a national early childhood education
and care policy would tell us about a society? [3 marks]
Ans. (a) Policy is a course of action that is anchored in (i) a set of values regarding
appropriate public goals, and (ii) a set of beliefs about the best way of achieving
(b) A public goal might be to provide all parents with the opportunity to be able to
secure paid employment even while their children are relatively young. Or it might
be to permit equal learning opportunities for all children of a certain age so that
some do not get left behind in the event their parents are unable to provide a
stimulating environment during the day. Or perhaps the importance place on early
preparation for school and lifelong learning.
2. Please identify five ways in which the level of unionization in a nation affects,
directly or indirectly, the health of its population. [5 marks]
Ans. Countries with higher levels of unionization tend to have higher levels of social
security and public heath care expenditures and coverage. They are more likely to
implement full employment strategies, attain high rates of female employment,
show the lowest levels of income inequality and poverty rates, and have lower rates
of infant mortality (a key indicator of population health).
3. Briefly explain the fee-for-service model of health care that is found in
Canada. Please identify three strengths and one weakness of our fee-for-
service health care system. [7 marks]
Ans. A fee-for-service model built on private practice and public payment.
Financed through taxes (income and other taxes) and administered publicly.
Spreads the risk across the entire population so that insurance is affordable for all.
One purchaser or single-payer (monopsony) means more effective cost control.
Universal coverage. However, it does not make for optimal client responsiveness
(lack of accountability; wait times).
4. (a) Please identify the reasons why new immigrants tend to be healthier than
the average Canadian. [2 marks] (b) Identify and discuss three reasons as to
why the health of immigrants tend to decline after their arrival in Canada? [6
Ans. (a) Immigrants must secure medical clearance before they are admitted into
Canada and consequently must be in good health. The requirement of medical
clearance tends to invite a situation where only the healthier (younger and more
educated) among any population self-select as potential immigrants.
(b) (i) Some of the decline attributed to the adoption of mainstream beliefs,
attitudes, and lifestyle behaviours (dietary changes; alcohol consumption; etc). (ii)
Other determinants include language and cultural barriers to the provision and utilization of services. (iii) Plus discrimination and marginalization in employment,
housing, work conditions, income, and social situations. Further