HUMA 1160 9.0
THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND HUMAN UNDERSTANDING
Monday April 1, 2013
Students should attempt all questions. Question 1. is worth 40 marks; questions 2.
and 3. are worth 30 marks each. If the bonus question is answered satisfactorily, this
will add one half grade to your mark on this test, e.g. C to C+; B to B+.
Students can bring one sheet of lined paper to the test, which contains a maximum
of 6 lines of handwritten material per question, for a total of 18 lines (if you choose
not to do the bonus question), or a total of 24 lines (if you choose to do the bonus
1. In Part 9 of Hume’s Dialogues, Demea argues that through his a priori deductive
argument, he can prove conclusively that God (a necessarily existent being) is the cause of
the world. Discuss fully Demea’s a priori argument in Part 9, and explain fully any two
criticisms that Cleanthes offers against Demea’s a priori argument. (You are welcome to use
the logic presented in lectures to enhance your answer: the logic alone will yield no credit.)
2. During the Enlightenment, thinkers were concerned with proofs which purported to
reveal God’s existence and nature. In this regard, discuss fully Philo’s key objection to
Cleanthes’ Argument from Design.
3. Select any two passages below from the Leviathan, and for each passage you have selected,
discuss as fully as you can: a) the context in which it is written; b) the meaning of the
passage; and c) the relevance of the passage to Hobbes’ attempt to explain how we can
achieve peace and the good life.
(i) “But whatsoever is the object of any man’s appetite or desire, that is it which he for his
part calls good; and the object of his hate and aversion, evil;…For these words of good, evil,
and contemptible are ever used with relation to the person that uses them, there being
nothing simply or absolutely so, nor any common rule of good and evil to be taken from the