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Midterm

HUMA 1160 ~ TEST 4 ~ Q2.docx

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Department
Humanities
Course
HUMA 1160
Professor
Stanley Tweyman
Semester
Winter

Description
2. During the Enlightenment, thinkers were concerned with proofs which purported to reveal God’s existence and nature. In this regard, discuss fully Philo’s key objection to Cleanthes’Argument from Design. Philo agrees that God’s existence is beyond doubt and also agrees that God’s nature cannot be known. He provides arguments for both of these claims. Cleanthes’argument from design is an argument from analogy, essentially has to do with an argument on the basis of resemblances and similarities. For example, begin with an object (Object X) that you have no more than one of, for which you can make observations about certain empirical elements/qualities (such as a leather jacket, black, sold by Old Navy, and is the most expensive). Then you find a similar jacket (object Y), which has the same features/qualities, but you note that object X lasted for 5 years. One can say ‘probably’Jacket Y will last 5 years, as Jacket X did but you cannot guaranteed this – this is known as an analogical argument. Cleanthes introduces the ‘rules of analogy’; which consist of 4 rules. First, Cleanthes says the greater number of objects withA, B, C and D, the stronger the conclusion – if everyone knew you had this experience, the conclusion will be greater. Second, the greater the number of similarities (similaritiesA, B & C) between object X and object Y (old jacket and new jacket), the stronger the conclusion. The third rule is, as dissimilarities between X and Y increase, the conclusion is weakened (such as stitching, materials, etc). However, not all dissimilarities are relevant, such as colour. Lastly, most importantly, argument by analogy seeks to link the features cited in the premises with those features cited in the conclusion. It turns out there is a range of connectivity, which is called relevance; it interprets the level of relativity. Three areas of relevance are examined by Cleanthes, first is the chance of a coincidence. If the features are incidental to each other, there is no real connection. The leather jacket lasting 5 years may have nothing to do with elementsA, B or C. Second is correlation, trying to establish a correlation between features in premises and conclusion. Lastly, a causal argument is an argument in which you would state the features in the premises caused the features in the conclusion. Through the utilization of the rules of analogy, a compari
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