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Detailed Lecture 8 Notes and Questions notes from lecture and test question!

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York University
HUMA 1710
Carol Bigwood

L8: The Olympians; The Nature of Myth November-14-10 8:52 PM November 8, 2010 Test Questions:  1) (10 marks) Describe three problematic issues concerning Hera  2) (10 marks) Explain and evaluate four theories of myth that you have learned Lecture Eight: The Olympians; The Nature of Myth  Homework read Coursekit readings first Check your schedule to get narrative overview Greek religion emerges from Dark Age  A mix of Gods/Goddesses from Bronze Age Minoan/Mycenaean, Near East, local cults  We learn about them from -Literature from poets become authority -Artifacts votive offerings at cult sanctuaries (caves, alters in groves, temples) -Art: Vase paintings depicting scenes: statues relief sculpture on temples Greek Myths are malleable, accumulative  Unifying forces -Homer, Hesiod, Athenian dramatists -PanHellenic centers such as Delphi and Olympia -Language (with dialects)  Differences perpetuated -from earlier writers to later -By individual authors -by local cults -by the masses of illiterate people Polytheism  Local and private cults with foreign gods are accepted;  Citizens have social obligation to worship state sanctioned gods  Complementary pantheon (all-gods)  Integrated into life Greek Sacrifice to Gods  Often Greek temple, cult image and alter for burnt offerings  inedible part to deity and consumption of meat in a communal feast  Votive offerings sculpture, clothing (peplos, girdle) The Olympians (12 Greek Gods and Goddesses + Hephaestos)  Are mostly either siblings or children of Zeus  No new gods/goddesses admitted as Olympians after Homer and Hesiod  Anthropomorphized gods like humans but immortal (emotions, but no need to work)  Many festivals, processions, ritual activities  The Pillar Cult of Zeus (Zeus as Pillar)  Zeus. Conquers old order of gods  Zeus attacks Typhaon Zeus, father and ruler  In myth birth in Crete but likely Dorian god  Power of battle and sexual potency  Has a planning mind even though mortals might not know the plan  Decisions are not blind or biased  Special concern for hospitality  Worshipped everywhere, not usually a city god  Olympia most important sanctuary and festival Plank Goddesses  Common in some parts of Mediterranean (ex. Bronze Age Cyprus)  Hera first worshipped as a pillar in Argos, a plank in Samos  Hera Hera: s
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