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HUMA 1720 (3)

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York University
HUMA 1720
Donald A Burke

Faust/Goethe - A scholar unsatisfied and seeking more from his study - Makes a deal with the devil to achieve happiness and satisfaction - He finds love in a woman named Gretchen, however she dies much to his despair o Emotional involvement and happiness - The main theme is the strive for happiness and achievement. Fulfilling ones true potential. Faust goes through this long painful journey, however his will to seek achievment was a positive notion. - All humans are in a constant strive to better themselves and do so perhaps in an imperfect manner. - Every human has an unconscious desire to improve - Quest for Beauty o Magic o Neoclassism o Romanticism o God Complex o Self actualization Romantic Poetry - Spoken with true emotion and expressed as a form of art - Often reflects the lives and emotional hardships of the authors - Romantic hero - Imagination - Emotional drive o John Keats o Lived a tragic life and expressed himself through his work  Ode on a Grecian urn  Speaks about everlasting love, frozen in time  Everything will forever exist and be timeless o Wordsworth o Reflecting of his life and love for nature and religion  Tintern Abbey  Gay  We are Seven  The little girl loses two of her siblings, yet speaks about being seven in total  She understands the losses she‟s encountered but is still spiritually connected to her brother and sister  Has a deeper grasp of life as opposed to the man speaking to her  She accepts change in her life, and strives for happiness o Whittman o Out of the cradle  Death signifies the completion of life  Emotion is a universal language that can be understood no matter the language or species Franky - Victor Frankenstein creates a monster - The monster is shunned by society but tries to be accepted - Goes through a struggle of good and evil deeds - He resents his creator because of the way he treats him, however he is the only one who he shares a bond with - The monster kills victors wife and brother out of rage - Dangerous Knowledge o Pushing the boundary of discovery and exploration o The pursuit of knowledge, being reckless with knowledge led victor to lose everybody close to him because the monster killed them o Also not taking responsibility for his actions and not dealing with the issue o Victor has a thirst for more knowledge and it proves to be destructive - Sublime Nature o How people react, how one feels toward something different - Monstrosity o Not only his appearance, but his ferociousness coming from his creation and the darkness of his conception o Victor‟s knowledge made him a true monster on the inside o The monster is one on the outside - Secrecy o Victor kept the owness of his creation a secret until he died, which is when he told Robert Walton o Did not take responsibility - Text o The story is made concrete through letters and journals o Helps make concrete inferences of the manifestations of characters - Motif o Light  Related to discovery - Love and belonging - Emotion - Framed narrative - Isolation - Science - Sympathy - Achieve the unachievable - Romanticism - Beauty - Nature vs. nurture - Laws of nature - Spirituality John Stuart Mill - On Liberty o Speaks about society‟s progress from lower to higher stages o This progression adds to a democracy in society where the leaders represent the needs of society o When talking about liberty, civil liberty is the limit that must be set for the power society has over individuals o Liberty can be divided into three types  Thought/opinion  Freedom to plan our own lives  Join others for a common goal  This can ensure that society does not compel compliance o Thinks we should not silence any viewpoint  Viewpoint does not necessarily make it correct  Dissent is vital because it preserves truth o Actions should not be as free as thought, due to harmful actions done to others o In order to achieve personal and social progress, individual liberty must be expressed o Liberty is essential to progress, whether of the individual or of society - Utilitarianism o Actions are right as they tend to promote happiness  Goals and happiness is the central base of peoples actions  Happiness is the sole basis of morality Smith - The natural price is the actual cost (materials, labour, etc.) - Market price is what the product is sold for at the market o Market price is above natural if demand is higher than supply o And is lower when supply is greater than demand - Division of Labour o Jobs should be divided and people should have more dexterity in specific jobs than many o Strive for technology  Because technology equals efficiency  Doing more work and being more productive with less physical effort is the main goal for efficiency o Jobs should be divided so that the wealthy hire the working class, and they work for them to increase the persons surplus while also earning money for themselves to the point where they achieve their own surplus and can leave the former employer and expand Hegel - Reason in history - Dialectic o Work toward progression with regression - Matter - Reason - Power of the state - Original history o Written during the historical period in question - Reflective history o Written after the period has passed - Philosophic history o Interpret history as a rational process - Ideas are superior - Rationale is the basis of all history o It stands alone as an independent variable - The central principle of spirit is rational freedom - Self actualization as a result true spirit freedom Marx/engels - Proletariat - Bourgeoisie - Economic Equality - Communism o Equality for all classes and people - Class Antagonisms - Means of production o Not only the physical production but the methods of working - Mode of production o The economic structure of society that defines peoples mode of living - Relations of production o The necessary relations between people as required for a certain form of material production Bakunin - Anarchy - Abolition of monarchy/religion - Liberty/ Absolute freedom republic - Equality - Social organization - Have to earn wealth through honest labour - Social antagonism Nietzche - Slave morality vs. Noble Morality - Good vs. Evil - Power (noble) - Suffering (slave) - Self-determination Slave Morality Master Morality Priestly caste Aristocratic, noble caste Jews during Babylonian exile... Greek and roman heroes and warriors Christianity Reformation Renaissance, rebirth of classical ideal French revolution 17-18 century france, napoleon (19 century) The mob or herd The ubermensh (superman) Vengeance, hatred, vindictiveness Do not take enemies seriously Reversal of noble values Will respect enemies Begins by saying “no” to an “outside” or Triumphant, self affirmation “other” Looking inward Happiness is passive Activity is a necessary part of happiness Conceives of the enemy as the „evil one‟ Spontaneously creates the notions good, ex. The good of the opposite side then derives the concept of bad Lambs Birds of prey Weakness Strength Good/evil Good/bad israel Rome Ibsen - Hedda Gabler o Manipulation o Powerlessness/victimhood o Realism o Suffering o Destruction of manuscript symbolizing a child between ejlert and hedda - Hedda Gabler manipulates everybody in her path and uses them for personal gains - Ejlert lovoborg is a character foil for hedda, as she cannot manipulate him - The manuscript represented their bond - Hedda destroyed the manuscript to remove the bond they shared - In the end she comes to the realization that her actions negatively affect everyone including herself, and she takes her own life Vladimir Lenin - Imperialism - Violent revolution - Overthrow - Active power - Communism o Marx and engels were the blueprint for Lenin o He used their thoughts to violently overthrow the government and take control - Capitalism - Proletariat - Bourgeoisie - Monopoly Renaissance Key concept- renaissance humanism - “the Prince” – by Machiavelli o Significance in political science/theory – the ends justify the means Scientific Era - Francis Bacon (New Organon) o Challenged deductive reasoning and proposes instead inductive reasoning o Based on observation of particulars o Deduction: inferring of instances from a general law: law created, then i
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