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HUMA Study Test 1.docx

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York University
HUMA 1720
Donald A Burke

HUMA Study notes and Key Concepts Francis Bacon- New Organon - Scientific Revolution - Significance: Proposes inductive reasoning instead of deductive o Deduction  Given true premises, there is only one conclusion that WILL happen, the premise entails the conclusion o Induction  Given true premises, there is a conclusion that will LIKELY follow, however the premise does not entail the conclusion  Start from particulars, work way up to generalization - Aphoristic Style o Indicates that this is subject to refinement - Beginning of inductive reasoning in the world - Rejected syllogism o Categorical Syllogism  An argument consisting of two premises and one conclusion  Ex. Some college students are happy, all college students are high school graduates, therefore some high school graduates are happy o Hypothetical Syllogism  An argument of two premises and a conclusion in which both premises are hypothetical o Dyjunctive Syllogism  An argument in which the leading premise is disjunctive (or) and the other premise being a denial of one of the alternatives  Ex. It is raining or I will go for a walk; but it is not raining, therefore I will go for a walk Galileo Galilei- Dialogue Concerning Two Chief World Systems - Scientific Revolution - Significance: Confirmed that the sun was at the centre of the solar system (heliocentric) using empiricism o Geocentric  Viewing the earth as the centre of the solar system, Ptolemy o Heliocentric  Viewing the sun as the centre of the solar system, Copernicus - Galileo was one of empiricism (experiment and observation) as opposed to rationalism (authority and tradition) o “Truth is the daughter of time, not of authority” - Galileo’s work taught the readers to question what was the truth - Two world systems are Ptolemaic and Copernican - Written in Italian rather than Latin to reach the widest audience possible - Galileo invented the experimental method - Dialogue written with characters comparing and contrasting Copernicus’ (Galileo’s) views and the views of Ptolemy Rene Descartes- Discourse on Method - Significance: Promoted 3 existences, “I think therefore I am”, and introduced the method of God, tries to implement a correct thought process o Res Extensa- things that occupy space o Res Cogitas- things that can think o God - Rationalism - Philosophy of Consciousness - Method of Doubt - Skepticism - Mind-Body Dualism o Soul or mind is wholly distinct from the body - Established a connection between geometry and algebra (solving geometrical problems using algebra equations) - Early Modern Philosophy - Proposes four rules for proper reasoning o The first is to not accept anything to be true which I did not clearly know to be avoid haste and prejudgment (Skepticism) o The second to divide each of the difficulties under examination into as many parts as possible, and as might be necessary for adequate solution (Rule of analysis- divide into parts) o The third, to conduct my thoughts, in such order that were the simplest and easiest to know, I might rise little by little, step by step, to the knowledge of the more complex (Rule of Synthesis) o Fourth, in every case to make enumerations so complete, and reviews so general, that I might be assured that nothing was omitted o Proof of God  Stems from the idea that there is a being more perfect than oneself. This idea can only come from the true existence of a being more perfect than oneself, that idea is innate  Abstract Rationalism John Locke- An Essay Concerning Human Understanding - Early Modern Philosophy - No inborn or innate ideas - Tabula rasa or blank slate - All ideas come from sensation or reflection - Classic Liberalism o State of nature  Do as you see fit, perfect freedom o Limited government o Consent of majority o Relationship between individual and community o State of Property  The idea that one can own things and nobody else has a right to take o Social Contract
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