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Important ideas Chpt 12-14.docx

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HUMA 1770
Leo Stan

Important ideas Chpt 12-14 *Highlighted titles are suggestions of what I think might be an essay question -Chpt12: The making of Europe -Monasticism – the lifestyle of doing physical work and private meditation and reading -Charlemagne bcame emperor of Romans in 800 CE -Vassals were introduced – a contract between a lord and subordinate where the subordinate would offer protection. -Manorial systems is when an agricultural estate has serfs or free peasants to cultivate the land belonging to the lord. High Middle Ages -An aristocracy was formed with warriors being seen as particularly important (knights) -Trade was doing well, especially for Flanders and Italy – Commercial capitalism became a thing (invest in goods to turn a profit) -Artisans created guilds for their specific trades and crafts -Common law happened by English King, Henry II (1154-1189) where law was common with the rest of the kingdom. Christianity -Dominicans (Dominic de Guzman) was an order that fought against heresy – was big during the inquisition -Franciscans (Francis of Assisi) lived poor and simple lives helping others Culture of Middle Ages -Universities and stuff – oral examination for degrees -Scholastics- Marry faith with reason – Thomas Aquinas is the most important scholastic (1225- 1274) Crusades 1095-1261 -Christians try to re-capture Jerusalem and Palestine from Muslims – Fail miserably. Chpt 13 Byzantine Empire -Justinian 527-565 -Created Justinian’s Code – Codify Roman laws into one big textbook -Crushed a revolt in 532 -After Justinian -Created a military defense system where civil offices (governers of the states) were also military leaders to fend off Persians and Slavs -Iconoclasts – People who opposed idolatry – caused tensions between Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church Trade -Constantinople became the biggest commercial center of its time with imports of silk, spices and ivory. Zenith of Byzantine Civilization (750 -1025) -Macedonians  Macedonians strengthened the rank of the farmers, they sold great amounts of silk and metals and converted the Prince of Kiev of Russia to Christianity  Leo VI (886-912) Systemized rules of regulating both trade and court officials and arranged new codification of Byzantine law  Basil II (976-1025) Defeated and annexed Bulgaria, making the Byzantine empire strongest than it ever was Fall of Byzantine empire (1025-1453) -Orthodox and Catholic Church separated in 1054. -Seljuk Turks conquered and occupied Anatolia after 1071 -Emperor Alexius asked Pope Urban II for help against Turks, starting the first crusade. 3 Crusades later, crusaders got caught up in a dispute over succession to the Byzantine throne. Crusaders sacked the city in 1204 and turned the empire into small states where crusading barons ruled -During 1347-1351, black plague happened, fucked shit up. Other parts of Europe -100 years war (1337 -1453
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