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Lecture 11 - *EXTENSIVE TEST INFO & WHAT IS TESTED* Part 4: The Mongol Empire & Europe

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HUMA 1770
William Gleberzon

Lecture 11 1 June 8th, 2011 Test: 2 hours  Debate: globalization begins when trade routes link between civilizations or the peripheral Eurasian Trade Routes  Inter-region trade routes = Asia, E Africa, Europe  Silk Road, Naval routes cover the major civilization in Asia, Europe and E/N Africa  Mongol empire with aggressive army, was into promoting trade African Trade Routes  Linked by land route and by river route to the rest of Western Africa  Extensive mining West African Agriculture  Different climate across different regions  Some woodland, some dessert  affect migration  Tend to move where there is food and where there’s a chance of migration o To Asia and to Europe o Vast area of grassland  World is divided into inhabitable or habitable zones – leads to migration The Bantu Migration  1. From north to south (along the west coast of Africa)  2. To east then south  Took place over many centuries  Spread all over sub-saharan Africa  Spread of settled agriculture and iron working The Settlement of the Pacific  Initially a migration from Indonesia to Australia  As a result of land riches that appeared in ice ages  Became isolated after the water turned back  Australia lacked in resources, weren’t able to develop many things that other parts of the world can  Massive expansion towards the Pacific (the Polynesians migration) – island hopping o With resources from island to island, building these large boats Polynesia  Last island settled by human (New Zealand) – until 1000 CE (land on the bottom left) Polynesian Body Art – The Tattoo  Long tradition of painting permanently to their body  Religious and political statement Rapa Nui (Easter Island)  Last to be settled, furthest to the east on the map Lecture 11 2 June 8th, 2011  A name Europeans gave when they settled there  Over-graced/used their resources and their civilization collapsed from hunger  Left behind tall statues (70 feet high) Video:  Maroon Island: Worshipped birds who had freedom of the sky  Never saw them come down from the sky, so they viewed them as sacred  Carving of super natural birds  Cut down forests to grow crops and shelters for growing population  Once timbers were all used, couldn’t build canoes anymore  Faced starvation, warfare broke out against clans Summary (so far)  3 areas of the world where people were linked with each other  Africa-Eurasia – large land mass where human lived for a long period  The Americas – isolated from the rest of humanity until modern era (except Vikings)  Oceania – whole area of pacific (Australia, Polynesian island)  Interlinked with each other in various ways, but not to each other  Trade and religion create large zone of cultural and interaction (influence over inhabitants part of the world) Part 4: The Mongol Empire  Karakorum = largest physical land empire in history founded by Genghis Khan The Nomadic Peoples of the Steppes  Grassland from China through Mongolia, Central Asia, Russia, Ukraine, to the River  Root of migration, move from one part to another  Migration from east to west over centuries  Domestication of horses = 1600 years ago (4000 BCE)  Raised cattle, sheep, goats o As a source of transportation and food  Need to keep moving so there’s a constant supply of grass for their animals  Nomadic were mobile  Lived in tents Nomadic Patterns of Migration  People now live in Europe, were originally from central/eastern Asia over a long period of time  Ability to attack and pillage existing settled civilization o China was constantly raided by northern nomadic people. Read why great wall was built Genghis Khan  Lord of all men  The Khuriltai of 1206 = given the crown to be emperor  Organized ambitious military strategy  Undertook wars and conquests  Within his lifetime, China, Korea, Middle East, came under Mongol rules Lecture 11 3 June 8th, 2011 The Mongol Empire  Their mobility provided advantages to them  Extent of the Mongol Empire  Military campaign 1236 = all the way to Poland  After the death of Khan was divided into 4 parts  Orange, green, blue, yellow (china) Mongol Horseman (Artist’s conception)  Horseback warrior: wore armour made of leather (not metal like Europeans) very tough, but light  Advantages = military like Greeks o Based on principle of merit o Military was divided into diff units o Each military unit one, soldiers would elect their leader o Enormous of freedom of organization in terms of leaders being chosen o
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