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York University
HUMA 1780
Hernan Humana

Antigone (Backstory): • Lauis (founder of Thebes) receives news from Oracle that his son (Oedipus) will kill him • Lauis and wife, Jacosta, send him to Corinth’s rulers: Polybus and Merope • Oedipus hears he might be adopted (not Polybus and Merope’s son), Oracle says he will kill his father and marry his mother • Vows to never return to Corinth • Kills an aristocrat (Lauis) when he is raged, and solves the sphinx’s riddle and reward is to marry the queen (Jacosta) • They have 4 children: Eteocles, Polynices, Ismene and Antigone • Oracle says there is a plague in Thebes (Oedipus) • Blinds himself, goes into exile, Jacosta hangs herself • Antigone and Ismene go with Oedipus, Eteocles and Polyneices to stay in Thebes • Creon (Jacosta’s brother) rules until the brothers are old enough • Eteocles doesn’t give up power • Polynices trys to invade Thebes with the Argos, brothers kill each other in combat • Creon is the ruler of Thebes Key Themes: • Struggle against tyranny • Ability to learn and show remorse • Need for democracy (communication) • Redefining gender roles One Central Tension: • 9  6 BCE Athens ruled by aristocrats (people of high power) • Slavery and no women’s rights • Wealthy landowners were challenged by small farmers who demanded rights • Solon creates a constitution enshrining basic rights, new parliament, paid members (poor couldn’t afford to run) • Athens wins the Greco-Persian War (490-480 BCE) • Rise of the Athenian Empire • Sophocles is born (497-497 BCE) → Wrote over 100 plays → Was a treasurer and general → Wrote the Theban plays: Oedipus the King, Oedipus the Colonus & Antigone Aristotle: • 388-322 BCE • Justice is a mean • “The master of all who know”- Dante • Justice is intermediate between • “The brain” – Plato extremes, inspires others to act virtuously, another person’s justice, • Tutor to Alexander the Great • “A student who needs the bridle more reason than the spur” –Plato • Rule by moderation not fear • Fled Athens in 323 BCE • Afraid of dictatorship Haemon (son) • Haemon’s first strategy is to marry Antigone so there are family ties • Haemon’s name represents a blood line • Haemon’s second strategy is to appeal to nature, gods and reason • Driven by moderation and justice Creon (ruler): • Creon’s absolute line, even if the laws are wrong they must be obeyed in all circumstances (promotes dystopia) • The people dislike the laws • Laws are to restore order, veteran audience, punish traitors and revenge • Inability to listen to others, lack of faith in democracy, advocates monopoly of power • Power must be obeyed • Prototypical Anti-Hero • Fears the people • Acts too late • Family as societal metaphor • Lack of rational perspective= death of family Antigone: • Challenges norms of gender • Family history and incest taboo • Biology; fated to fail because they’ve gone against social norms/lack of reason • Maintains religious tradition (justice) • Courage and reason • Defined by difference to Ismene (aware of what is going on in society) • Against her own family Ismene: • Sister of Antigone • Unaware of what is going on in her society • Gender defines who we are, and our place • We cannot change, defined by inaction Biology: • Foregrounding of blood: ” my own flesh and blood dear sister” • Incest Home: • Home we have • Home we aspire to • Where family gathers, warmth • Family loyalty as central to functioning society Change: • Good morality = change • Change is often met with fear Gender: • Status quo is gendered • Society is gendered on hierarchy • The past is gendered • Gender norms are to be challenged (Antigone) Female Male Antigone & Ismene Creon & Haemon Lost 2 brothers Victorious in war Family line is over Family line begins Powerless Powerful Summary: • Conceptions of gender change • Society must change in order for stability • Power involves reason over passions, tyranny will fall Bretcht’s Antigone Key Themes: • Developing a way of perceiving the past • Analyzing the seduction of power • Learning from bad situations Brecht: • German Playwright • 1898-1956 • Politically minded • Brecht leaves Germany Feb. 28, 1933 due to Nazis • Massive book burning (his own books, May 10, 1933) • Works with exiled German cultural community • Produces anti-Nazi songs, poems and plays for a German audience • Revered but deemed too political for Hollywood • War ends 1939 • Comes into conflict with McCarthyism • HUAC October 30, 1947 • Leaves the U.S October 31, 1947 Key Principles: • Materialism (what motivates people → Antigone upset only when her life is affected → Creon serves the elders → Elders are driven by money → Guards are driven by fear from Creon • The seduction of power → Creon and state of power (stubborn and war-like) → Drunk on power → Material benefits of power • Learning from mistakes → Creon never learns → Elders learn → Antigone learns and acts on it Creon: • Delusion and disaster: just one more battle and the Argos would have surrendered” • Wants society to go down altogether Elders: • Elders operate under willful denial • ‘Our violent hands now shall be cut off so they do not strike again’ Antigone: • Overcomes her own blindness, but then makes a stand against her society • Trying to set an example Differences Bretch: Human Customs Creon crime against humanity Religious Law Creon fails is society Creon’s crime is against impiety No wisdom in suffering Creon fails himself Political morality Through suffering we gain wisdom Anti-war “Just” war Sophocles: THE HUNGER GAMES Central Dualisms/Binaries: • Centre vs. Periphery • Good vs. Bad • Rich vs. Poor • Urban vs. Rural • Odd vs. Normal • Aggressive vs. Passive, Masculine vs. Feminine Patterns to Consider: • Food: → Power relations; system of control → Fasting (districts) and Feasting (Capitol) → Bread (bunt) → Poison (berries) → Small bones (in the games; rodents) vs. Lavish Feasts (Capitol; roast pig) • Nature: → Knowing one’s nature → Living off the land → Healing force → Destruction of the natural environment → Nature as ornament • Technology: → Broken wooden cart vs. hover train → Wood furnace vs. transporting tubes → Wood vs. metal bow and Arrow • Appearance: → Miner’s working clothes vs. elaborate fashion → Grey clothing vs. colorful ornamentation → Short hair vs. groomed facial hair, Long straight hair vs. aristocratic up-do • Communication: → From above: surveillance, reality show, violent, lies → From below: natural, generous and caring, troubles Coriolanus Snow: Roman, coldness Cato: The ender roman military figure Effie Trinket: Small, pointless Katniss and Primrose: Natural, plants and flowers Peeta: Earthen Rue: Remorse Historical Metaphoric Portrayal of Class: • Roman circuses • Appalachian coal community • European aristocracy th • 19 century largesse • Feudal poaching: Katniss like robin hood • Marie Antionette- Effie Trinket • Albert Speer; Nazi Germany-Capitol City • Fascistic dominance • Contemporary society: everyday clothing, reality TV Capitalism: • We rule you – President Snow • We fool you – Fire on Katniss’ dress • We shoot you – Strom Troopers • We eat you – Scene with the pig • We work for all – Factory work 3 Lessons: 1. Upholding the law at all costs: → Maintains order, prevents chaos → Unreasoning law leads to tyranny, injustice, abuses of power 2. Resisting Patriarchy: → Disobedience, confusing of social roles leads to chaos and disaster → Not defending the rights of others and fighting oppression leads to disaster-tyranny, injustice and abuses of power 3. Responses to Change → Resisting change vs. accepting, initiating change → Future decided or we have our own destiny Film Language Synopsis: brief outline or general view of something, abstract or summary Sign: Something with meaning Denotative: Literal description of meaning Connotatice: Associated meaning Angles: • Straight on: normality, intimacy, ordered space • High angle: smallness, unimportance, powerlessness • Low angle: power, authoritative, godly • Canted angle: unease, instability, unbalanced • Halo effect: saintliness, trustworthy, lit up from behind Sound: • Diegetic: sound in the film, back round, dialogue • Non-Diegetic: sound outside the film, soundtrack, narration, voiceover Establishing shot: allows audience to see the subject in relation to it’s surrounding Mise en Scene: Everything in the image, lighting, color, arrangement of actors, props Lighting: • Low key lighting: casts shadows, creates unease • Key lighting: makes characters soft • Parallel Novel: borrows plot, structure and characters from the original, fills in the rest of the story (extension) → Little Women – March → Moby Dick – Ahab’s Wife → Huckleberry Fin – Finn → Jane Eyre – The wide Sargasso Sea → Pride and Prejudice – Duty and Desire – Private Diary – Me and Mr. Darcy → Adaption: A work of fiction that exists of derives from another work of fiction (updates or change of details) Narrative Pattern: Exposition Rising ActionCLIMAXFalling ActionDenouement Prequel: storyline that precedes that or the ogininal work, referring to events that occur before the primary novel, provides a backstory, fills in gaps and uses dramatic irony Dramatic Irony: when an event, or the word and actions of a character have different meaning for the reader than they do for those in the film, relies on the reader having greater knowledge Meta-Cinema: self-aware, a film that knows it is a film, refers to the filmmaking process, and acknowledges the audience or itself, awareness of film history or theory Protagonist: isolated figures Antagonist: the epitome of evil Wanderer: an archetype of isolation and exile Canonical: Belongs to a cannon (collection of fictional novels that refer to previous novels) to the gothic WICKED Gender: • All of the protagonists are women → Begin in position of powerlessness, become empowered through actions and journey • Live in dystopian societies • Oppressed by patriarchy • Bear the marks of their parent’s sin • Resist social custom, conventions of gender (not wives or mothers) • Rebel against the laws of their societies • Regarded as ‘traitors’ Glinda: • Represents beauty according to social norms • Tremendously popular • They attract, but repel because they are opposites • Galinda tried to make Alphaba to care about her appearance • Alphaba notes knowledge and intelligence in Galinda Glinda Vs. Alphaba Good Evil Freedom Oppression Leadership Tyranny Nature Culture Romanticism Enlightenment Old religion New religion Magic Intellect Conformity Individualism Populism Elitism Order Vs. Chaos Beauty Ugliness Normal Abnormal Conformity Non-conformity Belonging Not belonging Us Them Change: • Continuity vs. Change • Change is the biggest threat • Coming-Of-Age story (Alphaba from shy  Wicked Witch of the West) • Kansas vs. Oz, (dark, grey vs. vibrant colorful) • Protagonist must leave home to change • Catalyst to progress, success • Change = empowerment • Dr. Dillamond is about to expose the truth about Animals • Change = revolution, reform Dorthy: • Lives in drab Kansas (economic recession, farming crisis, populist movement in rural areas) • “Over the rainbow” – longing for change (Utopianism) • Reality vs. Illusion • No sense of belonging - adopted • 1939, war erupted in Europe, stay home form war Setting: → Kansas: • Economic recession • Farming crisis • Populist movement in rural area → Rush Margins and Oz: ‘Haves’: -the elite, wealth, color, excess, capitol, power - Unionism: the old time religion, conservative → Vinkus: American West, rugged and wilderness, savage → Qualding:- Poverty, grey, drab, destitute, American heartland, prairie states, farming country -Lurlinism: polytheistic, more than 1 god -Pleasure faith: enjoyment, power of magic -Tik-Tokism: Dragon Clock, the future ‘ The pleasure Faith’ Philosophical Shift: • ‘Change’, key to coming-of-age tales • Mirrors manage religious movements • Mirrors Major philosophical movements: Enlightenment vs. Romanticism Romantic Movement: • Complex artistic, literary and intellectual movement • Late 1700s, Western Europe and England • Gained strength during the industrial Revolution, revolt against enlightenment • Revolution, rebellion, imagination, simplicity • Set out to transform theory and practice of art and how we perceive the world • ‘Age of Revolutions’; American revolution (1776), French Revolution (1789) and Industrial Revolution (1700s-1800s) • Transform the theory and practice of all art and how we perceive the world, based on arts • Imagination: primary creative source for all art • Reconciliation: of opposites (reason vs. feeling) • Simplicity and naturalness (refuge from artificiality, external and internal, healing, organic) • Favored popular culture over high culture; spontaneous outpourings; folk music • Nationalism: by product of romanticism • ‘The the voice of their nation’ • Ability to communicate many things simultaneously on multiple levels, ‘express inexpressible’ Feminism: • Baum’s mother-in-law; feminist and human rights champion; Matilda Gage (Dorthy’s model?) • Female powerment =Danger, Feminine competition implied by tensions • Alphaba; Ugly – violates social norms and challenges conventions of gender Ideology of Beauty: • Elphaba’s ‘greenness’ refers to racial discourse • ‘Evil’ and ‘other’  unattractive as a woman and inhuman • Makes the assimilation to mainstream impossible • Sympathizes with those who similarly suffer from discrimination Enlightenment: • Philosophical and political movement which preceded Romanticism • Late 1600s-1700s in Europe and America • Question of power, leadership, individual rights and freedom, importance of reason • ‘Reason’ was the primary source and legitimacy for authority • Impact in American Bill of Rights, French Declaration, US Declaration of Independence • Sought greater freedom for common people; natural rights and law, individual rights and common sense • Ruling system: → Theocracy: rule by clerics and religion → Oligarchy: rule by small elite made up of rich families and military influences → Aristocracy: Elite in a class society → Divine Rights of Kings: Born to kingship, infallible → Machiavellianism: power, leadership, methods of ruling Romanticism vs. Enlightenment: Passion, feeling rationalism Individualism Institutions Magic Logic, Science Instinct Intellect God Mankind Nature Culture Simplicity Complexity Parallel Novel: • Retains several elements but elaborates further • Elements of populism • Skepticism toward religion • Affirmation of the idea of human fallibility, but also the idea of human divinity and the power of self-reliance • ‘Coming-of-age” story • Discourse of identity/difference/race • Discourse on social and political engagement in foreign affairs Same: th th • Time period: 19 -20 Century • Setting: Oz but no Kansas • Social and class tensions between center and periphery • Eliminates some cultures (China country, Hammerheads, The Queen of Mice), • Retains khalidas and Winkies • Adds Quadling Country, Rush margins, Gillikin and The Vinkus • Eliminates certain magical or symbolic items; golden cap • Retains symbols; magic slippers, broom, deadly poppy field • Key characters; Wicked Witches, Glinda, Wizard, Dorthy • New Characters; Madame Morrible, Melena, Frex, Turtle heart, Dr. Dillamond • Wizard is evil tyrant, Dorthy is bad • Coming-of-age, hero’s journey • Maintains utopianism, subjectivity and identity • References enlightenment, romanticism, populism, suffragettes, ideology of beauty • Adds Fascism and Nazism • Shifts thematic emphasis; not just children’s fantasy Post-Colonialism: • Academic discipline featuring various methods of discourse that want to analyze and explain the cultural legacies of colonialism and imperialism • Examines the consequence of settlement, which always involves the economic exploitation of the native people and their land • Looks at primary power that supports colonialist projects and maintains imperialist regimes • Representations of power (social and political) • Includes religion and political beliefs Symbolism: • Dorthy: American everyman led astray • Silver Slippers: 16-1 silver ratio of the day • Yellow Brick Road: gold standard • Emerald City: Washington and it’s green paper money delusion • Wizard: reminiscent of ‘snake-oil salesman’ • Munchkins, Scarecrow: American farmers and their troubles • The cyclone: used in the 1890s as a metaphor for revolution • Kansas: the ‘pioneer’ spirit which led to the settling of the territories • Wicked Witch of the West and East: a figure of the American West, financial over lords (banks, railroad) that drove small farmers out of business • Flying monkeys: Native Americans/Indians • Tin Man: encroachment of industrialization, proliferation of factories, failure of American steel • Cowardly Lion: poor American military performance in the Spanish-American War, ‘cowardly’ Wall street investors of the time The Wizard of Oz • Victor Fleming, 1939 • Musical fantasy, MGM studios, known as a classic • Judy Garlan to play Dorth; more adult style, costumes to look like a child • Filmed partly in sepia-toned • Silver shoes changed to ruby slippers to take advantage of Technicolor • ‘Over the rainbow’ was almost deleted, won Oscar for the best original song-signature song • Annual television tradition between 1959 and 1991 in North America • Top 10 movies all time Social Context: • Production on WOZ began 1938 • Depression • War clouds gathering in Europe • Nations under control of fascist governments; Soviet union-Joseph Stalin, Italy-Benito Mussolini, Germany-Adolf Hitler, Japan-Emperor Hirohito • War in Europe and Asia, Sept. 1939 Germany invaded Poland • Start of WWII, Annexed Austria, occupied France, launched air strikes against England, Formed Axis powers • Many Americans against US involvement in the war-isolationists • Nazi victories + Pearl Harbor (1941) changes their minds Hollywood’s Wartime Role: • Hollywood involved in war effort • Made numerous films • Top stars and directors enlisted in the armed forces • Dorthy a ‘foreigner’ in Oz, her American identity and viewpoint emphasized • Witch’s green skin is intended to make her look monstrous, sign of race, alien, identity Isolationism: • Dorthy’s repeated desire to go home • Insistence upon her un-involvement in WWE’s death • Does not want ruby slippers • Resistance to fighting • War depicted as a ‘nightmare’ Dorthy’s speech at the end Engagement: • Dorthy configured as a ‘global citizen’ implicated in the struggle kills Witch, liberates the munchkins • Accepts mission to kill WWW in order to ‘go home’ • Threatened, captured and tortures • Wins the ‘war’, goes home • Shot of flying moneys=enemy aircraft • Dorothy and friends= military allies • Assigned a specialized mission (kill the WWW) • Hailed as liberators of Oz The Wiz: Sidney Lumet, 1978 • African-American version • Produced by Motown and Universal • Popular black performers, • Part of surge in African American cinema that began with Blaxploitation movement (1970s) • Elements changed to Urban • Cyclone is a snow storm • House is an electrical fence • Munchkinland is a municipal park • Scarecrow is made of garbage • Tinman is an amusement park • Lion is a the statue from the library • Poppies are prostitutes • WWW runs a sweatshop with ‘flying monkeys’ biker gang • The Emerald City is based on the World Trade Centre Plaza Setting: • Harlem, Centre of the black neighborhood in NY • Visible evidence for the marginalization of African Americans in America • Microcosm of American’s decline and intensifying race issues throughout the 70s (worst period in Harlem’s history) • Many escaped if they could afford it, the people who remained were the poorest Themes: • Coming-of age story, road Story, quest for identity, self-realization • Utopianism-longing for something better • Musical format, Fantastical elements Wizard: • Revisionist reworking of Baum and Hollywood film • Glorifies the hardship of the settlement by white Europeans • Ignores other ethnicities that had a hard time settling in North America • Constructed within post-colonial consciousness of the 70s • ‘White bias’ of Baum’s story and Hollywood adaption • ‘Creation myth’ which imagines America and Oz as white • Dorthy is a symbol of resistant to social and political oppression-within her own society → Liberator of her own people → Speaks to internal rather than external social problems • Questions the ‘American Dream’ – everyone has a chance at success but not African Americans → Poorest and most socioeconomically challenged group of Americans → Largest population of urban projects → Smallest population in post-secondary schools and management positions in the workplace • Not represented equally in American culture-civil rights and black movement OZ THE GREAT AND POWERFUL • Based on Baum’s original series of the Oz novels • Pays tribute to the 1939 Hollywood film version •
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