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HUMA 1825 Final Exam Review.docx

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HUMA 1825
Neil Braganza

HUMA 1825 Final Exam ReviewNovel Readings Sophocles AntigoneCreons justice is that heroes are honoured and treated as such whereas traitors should be left on the roadside for the consumption of animals o His concept of law is that he as a ruler can create laws that will represent the greater good of his city o In the beginning of the story Creon sees himself as a great almighty and powerful ruler who has the ability to make any lawsWhen he is foretold that his actions are rash and will end poorly by Tiresias he quickly changes his methodologyEssentially he changes from a tyrant to a cowardo Creon focuses interest in his gender in such that he cannot step down before the ideology of a woman He sees women as replaceable objects Antigone on the other hand believes that everyone is equal after death despite their actions or beliefs in life o Antigone focuses on natural law and would rather serve the law of Gods than the law of man o Antigone brings the aspect of gender into considerationconsidering how she is a woman and it is her duty to bury and pay tribute to the males in her family the importance of her being a woman is what drives her to disobey Creons law o Antigone works well as a moral exemplar because she demonstrates herself as a martyr for the sake of justice Unlike Creon she demonstrates that she will not be willing to change her ideology no matter how grim the outcome or punishment will become The Chorus supports Creon and the creation of his law in the beginning they consider Antigone to be a selfcentered brat o During the middle of the play the Chorus changes its perspective on Antigones actions and sees that she chooses the honourable decision o At the end the Chorus attempts to dissuade Creon from making the mistake of killing AntigoneThis represents a framework of this course in the sense that you have a conflict between classical natural law Antigone and legal positivism Creon o The natural law is present when Antigone when she says that there is a moral truth that is absolute and that overrides human laws that is inconsistent to the moral truthfor her moral truth must be reflected in human law otherwise that law is not valid o The legal positivism is present when Creon says since he is the duly constituted lawmaking authority his law is valid and authoritative where he is concernedAnouilhs AntigoneThis play was written in 1942 and has a very similar plot to that of Sophocles However it is very different in terms of its moral and political concepts from the original playImportant differences include Anouilh making contemporary schemes such as coffee and nonancient anachronism The setting of the play is very neutral without any historical or geographical implications The chorus speaks to the audience in a metatheatrical way it breaks the fourth wall There is an absence of Tiresias permanently ridding Antigone of religion Anouilh specifically added the Nurse character as a means of underscoring the common theme of childhood Items like the little spade Polynices flower and her dog Floss are all meant to infantilize Antigones character o Contrasting this theme is Creon and his notions of adulthood o Another addition is the Guard characters that represent every single manthey have no moral judgments and will do whatever they are told They have no imagination and are simply soldiers following ordersCreon is displayed in this play as the optimal adulthe has to do a job that he doesnt really like but nevertheless he does it to the best of his ability o This character attempts to dissuade Antigones stupidity by showing her that burial rights are not important taking religion out that both of her brothers were worthless thugs and burying one of them was meant as a political message o Hes a consummate pragmatism in the sense that he does what is necessary to achieve the good end Even when the catastrophe unfolds he carries on with life o Therefore Creon is a good reflection of the Vichy government that tried to protect the State by sacrificing all for the good of the country One main theme in this story is that happiness is all about compromise lack of which will result in deathAristotleJustice is the desire for everyone to be virtuous and injustice is people who are unjust by wishing for unjust things o Justice is either distributive or corrective equityDistributive justice is giving people rewards based on the merit of their character or their virtuesthe more virtuous they are the higher reward they will receivethis is only partial justice because it has a tendency of being incorrect in terms of the characteristics or virtues being judged for example Nazi law This is regarded to as the principle of formality whereby their isnt enough context creating unfairness it is virtuous to be Aryan and vicefull to be JewishThis works on the idea that not everyone is equal people should receive what they deserve based on their actions and character
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