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HUMA2440 Study Notes.docx

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HUMA 1846
Janet Rubinoff

HUMA2440 Study Notes – Exam Review Important Figures : Thomas Babbington Macaulay - British Historian, played a major role in introducing English and Western Concepts to education in India - Supported the replacement of Persian by English as the medium of instruction in all schools and the training of English speaking Indians as teachers - In though, divided the world into civilized & barbarism placing Britain in the highest point of civilization - Macaulay’s Minute formed basis for the reforms introduced in the English Education Act of 1935 o Macaulay’s Minute on Indian Education: Macaulay argued in 1835 that providing education based on Sanskrit and Arabic in India is of no use for India’s development, and argued instead for education based on English literature. He envisaged creating, “a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect”. The Minute is based on an idea that English education is not just superior in ‘science’, but would also inculcate superior morals, etc. that were responsible for making the English superior. Nana Sahib - Important figure in the rebellion of 1857 – adopted by Peshwa Baji Rao, family was exiled to Bithoor but received pension up until father’s death. Once he died, he no longer got money and held grudge against the British - Satiachaura Ghat Massacre o 40 boats were arranged by Nana to take British down to Allahnad o Skirmish broke out at the ghat, Nana’s troops attacked the Britians and killed/drowned all the men - Bibigarh Massacre o Surviving women and children taken to a building calledthhe Bibigarh o Just before British re-enforcements arrived on July 16 to rescue, all were massacred and bodies thrown into a well (~200) o Was retaliation for British violence to Indian villages along route - Nana Sahib escapedto Bithoor, then into the hills – Nepal and never found Lakshmi Bai, Rani of Jhansi - joined by Rani of Jhansi (Queen), who has been ousted from her kingdom by the British in 1854 - baby son not accepted as legitimate and Jhansi annexed - fights British on the field and is killed in battle in June 1858 Queen Victoria - after rebellion, English east India company closed down and power transferred to the crown (parliament and queen) - issued a “proclamation to the Princes, Chiefs and people of India” to reassure Indians all treaties will be honoured and all privilege of prince and chiefs will be maintained - Becomes Empress of India in 1858 Ghalib - Transitional figure between rise of british india and decline of Mughal empire - One of India’s greates poets, especially in development of Urdu literature and poetry - Known for Ghazals, love poems in Urdu and Persians, and known for prose in his letters - Wrote letter during the Mughal decline and rise of British empire during the rebellion of 1858 (life & letters) - Impressed with the british – rationalism, technology and science but saw how they were taking over and culture of India disappearing (sadden by this) - Wrote about the violence during the rebellion (first-hand account) - After decline of the Mughal empire, he became poor - Didn’t care about the mutiny – didn’t support due to violence Rassundari Devi - Bengali Brahmin women first to write autobiography at age 66 - Published in 1876, married off at age 12, mother-in-law blind at 14, therefore was head of household - Extremely religious at a young age, found relief in religion, wanted to learn to read religious text - Hid pages from religious text in her kitchen and compare to son’s palm leaves – self-taught - Sons taught her how to write, so she can write letters to them in Calcutta - Silent & personal rebellion against the restrictions and roles of women in Indian society - Compares herself to “sacrificial goat”/”caged bird” - At young age, allowed to sit in during lessons, extremely close to mother but wasn’t allowed to see mother at deathbed (felt trapped) - Autobiography: “Amar Jiban” means My life in Bengali James Mill - History of India – 1773-1836, Scottish historian - Work influenced whole system of governing in India - Never visited India but used documentary materials and archival - Criticized how india women were treated – if women progressed, the country will progress – saw india was backwards - Their status could be used as an indicator of society’s advancements - Concluded that British domination was “nature & inevitable” - Highly influential in pushing the eed for women’s reforms among Bengali Elites Lord William Bentinck - Governer-general of East India Company (1828-1835) - Liberal reformer to abolish sati in 1929 John Stuart Mill - Son of James Mill - Wrote book – Utilitarianism – moral principles shared British colonial attitudes about Indian society - Moral worth of an action is determined soley by its utility in providing happiness/pleasure - Ie. If stop Sati/free women- better outcome for the state Rom Mohun Roy - Maker of modern idea, reformer, writer, scholar, businessmen (Calcutta) - Anglopile, impressed with British - “mediator” between old and new india, india and british - Employed with East India Company in revenue dept. - Wrote pamphlets & article advocating various social, educational and religious reforms o “A conference between an advocate for & an opponent of the Practice of Burning Widows Alive” o Makes religious argument not humanitarian – against Sati, based on the Hindu scriptures and commentaries - Advocated English education – stressed science and technology - Founded Brahmo Samaj o Against idol worship & superstition o Strong supporter of monotheism (one god, formless being) Dwarakanath Tagore - Grandfather of Rabindranath Tagore - Founder of Brahmo Samaj - Noted social reformer Rabindranath Tagore - Wrote “The Home & the World” - Sent to England at 17, attended UofLondon - Father wanted him to be a lawyer or Indian Civil Service/Servant - Started painting in 60’s – one of the first Indians to be globally exhibited in the West - Educator: founded new system of education and famous school in 1901 – Shantiniketan - Wanted to transformed social and moral fabric of society through cross-cultural engagement - Education to combat social injustice and poverty of lower castes - Against regimented learned – learn at own pace, to develop individualism naturally and a holistic approach - First to win Nobel Prize in 1913 – first Indian/asian to receive this prize - Wrote music for “Bande Matararm” – becoming the most famous and most used during the nationalism movement Surendranath Banerjee - Leader of Swadeshi Movement – Tagore modeled Sandip after this person Bankim Chandra Chatterji - Hybrid – support both india and British - Married at 11, first to graduated with B.A in New Calcutta University - Deeply influenced by the rebellion of 1857 and its failures - Worked as British Indian civil service, didn’t like job due to “glass ceiling: - Sought to develop Bengali literature through British novel form - Wrote “Anandamath” o Set in period of Bengal Famine & aftermath (1770-1774) o Army uprising led by monk demand food and relief from taxes “The Children” - Black Hole of Calcutta (1756), Clive’s defeat of Nawab of Bengal, Battle of Plessey Mohandas Karamachand Gandhi - studied in England, law and went to Africa to practice law to help indentured Indians and refugees - developed Satyagraha and led civil disobedience movement - adopted non-violent Swadeshi and boycott of British education institutions, titles and etc - 1919- organized satyagraha(non-violent resistance) to oppose Rowlatt Bill Legislation o effectively authorized the government to imprison for up to two years, without trial, any person suspected of terrorism living in the Raj and gave the imperial authorities power to deal with revolutionary activities o first major nationwide interfaith protest against british government since mutiny o Called a Hartal (day of fasting) - Jawarhalal Nehru - (1889-1964) - 1919 enters nationalist struggle with Gandhi against British Raj after Amritar Massacre (1919) - 1919-1920 – joined INC and India’s independence movement – took part in many of Gandhi’s non-cooperation, civil disodedience movements - 1930’s Salt Satyagraha -90, 000 arrested included Gandhi & Nehru - Chosen successor to lead independent india o 1 P.M of new state of India (August 15 , 1947) - India’s is a history moved by the logic of accommodation and acceptance (of different people, customs and religions) - Vinayak Domodor Savarkar - Founding member of all India Hindu Mahasabha - Also associated with RSS (Rashtyiya Swayam Sevak Sangh) - Essentially advocated on India for Hindu’s only - Hindutva: India homeland for Hindus, followers of ‘Vaidik’ dharma (vedic law) - people follow vedic religion are not that only hindus, people like Buddhist, Sikhs who were born in India were also Hindus - so since Islam not born in india and came from Persians NOT hindu Muhammad Iqbal - countered Savarkar’s ideas of a hindu homeland - 1930 presidential address to Muslim League – two states solutions or seperare homeland for Muslims in Northeast of Subcontinent - Calls for a “permanent communal settlement” based on Muslims’ own traditions culture - Contends that “European democracy cannot be applied to India without recognizing” these communal groups - Calls for creation of “muslim India within India - Pakistan – P-Punjab, A-Afghania, K-Kashmir S-Sind ISTAN- Baluchistan - Developed “two-nation theory” Muhammad Ali Jinnah - Muslim – supported “two-nation theory” later in time - Head of political committee in INC (1916) to unite muslims and hindus during WW1, supported independence (self-rule) - Concerned with lack of muslim representation in INC - Became political rival of Gandhi - Argued for muslim representation within a secular Indian state – believed in constitutional means and negotiation for self-gov’t - 1928 angry with INC due to lack of their support for separate Muslim electorates - 1943- Jinnah returns to India to revive a new all India Muslim League o 1930’s became more alienated from INC, Gandhi and Nehru o Didn’t accept separate state for Muslims until early 1940’s Faiz Ahmed Faiz - poet, disillusioned with the partition of India @ the time of independence - “the morning of freedom/dawn of freedom” - Acknowledged as greatest Urdu poet after Iqbal - Inheritor of the tradition of Ghalib and ghazal - Served in army - Charged was Rawalindi Conspiracy - Khwaja Ahmad Abbas - Journalist, film critic & screenwriter - 2 stories of the partition: 1) A debt to pay 2) Revenge - Themes: human suffering, gratuitous violence of partition, violence against women and humiliations of men who can’t protect them, prejudice and hatred directed at other religious. Ethnic - Blame shared by all Lord Mountabatton - sent in 1947 disengage Britian from India with least possible harm to the British - With 2 world wards, British was drained from economically and manpower therefore India became a liability that couldn’t afford - August 14, 1947 – Pakistan Independence – Governor General - Jinnah - August 15, 1947 – India Independence – Prime Minister – Nehru Dr. Kakshmi Sahgal - leader from INA women’s wing, first of its kind in Asia - called the Rani Jhansi Regiment - becomes Minister of Women’s affairs in Bose’s Azad Hindu Government Netaji/Bose - Nationalist leader during independence movement - Members of INC, elected president 1938-1939 was later asked to resign due to racial thinking - Founded INA (India National Army) with money from the Japanese – at first seen as their puppets - Army formed with POW members, plantation workers, got worldwide recognition and support (esp. In Singapore) - Wanted to invade India via Burma - Failed Jotirao Govindrao Phule - was lower caste not dalit - educated in mission school, believed in primary education for all women & low caste - one of the first to resist caste – felt they expressed “double colonialism” - founded by Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth) - encouraged 9 year old wife to be educated and join him o later opens up a school where she is headmistress, one of the first females to get modern education (Savitribai Phule) - wanted to liberate all women from patterns of male domination o opened Victoria Orphanage Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar st - untouchable caste, extremely bright/smart, went to Columbia University (USA) and was 1 untouchable to receive doctorate in education 1917, London for D.Sc in Economic - 1923 return to India, great humiliation and discrimination therefore advocated struggle against casteism - Fought with Gandhi for separate electrorates for untouchables – Gandhi opposed, went on fasted to death - Ambedkar gave in & signed Poona Pact 1932 accepting reserved seats - Ambedkar had become one of the most prominent untouchable political figures of the time. He had grown increasingly critical of mainstream Indian political parties for their perceived lack of emphasis for the elimination of the caste system. - Ambedkar criticized the Indian National Congress and its leader Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi, whom he accused of reducing the untouchable community to a figure of pathos. - Ambedkar was also dissatisfied with the failures of British rule, and advocated a political identity for untouchables separate from both the Congress and the British. Premchand - Represented Dalits in literature, was from high caste - Brought social realism to Hindu literature - Portrayed Dalits in negative light – lazy, drunk, dirty, jobless o The Shro
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