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HUMA 1850 Terms - Final Exam.docx

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York University
HUMA 1850
Loredana Kun

HUMA 1850 Final Examinations Terms to Review JESUS Jesus (7–2 BC/BCE to 30–36 AD/CE), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God. Christians hold Jesus to be the awaited Messiah of the Old Testament PAUL Paul the Apostle (c. AD 5 – c. AD 67; variously referred to as the "Apostle Paul" or "Saint Paul") also known as Saul of Tarsus, is one of the most influential early Christian missionaries and leaders of the first generation of Christians. Almost half of the books of the New Testament are credited to his authorship.6][He was responsible for spreading the gospel of Christianity through early Christian communities across the Roman Empire. From the mid-30s to the mid-50s he established several churches in Asia Minor and at least three in Europe, including the church at Corinth. NICODEMUS Saint Nicodemus was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, who, according to the Gospel of John, showed favour to Jesus. He appears three times: the first is when he visits Jesus one night to listen to his teachings (John 3:1–21); the second is when he states the law concerning the arrest of Jesus during the Feast of Unleavened Bread (John 7:45–51); and the last follows the Crucifixion, when he assists Joseph in preparing the corpse of Jesus for burial. The discussion with Jesus is the source of several common expressions of contemporary Christianity, specifically, the descriptive phrase born again used to describe the experience of believing in Jesus as Saviour, and John 3:16, a commonly quoted verse used to describe God's plan of salvation. HEROD Herod, also known as Herod the Great (73/74 BC – 4 BC in Jericho), was a Roman client king of Judea. He is also known for his colossal building projects in Jerusalem and elsewhere, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (sometimes referred to as Herod's Temple) and the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima. Herod the Great appears in the Gospel according to Matthew (2:1-23), which describes an event known as the Massacre of the Innocents. MATTHEW Matthew the Apostle (also known as Saint Matthew) was, according to the Bible, one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus and one of the four Evangelists. Among the early followers and apostles of Jesus, Matthew is mentioned in Mt 9:9 and Mt 10:3 as a former tax collector from Capernaum who was called into the circle of the Twelve by Jesus. According to the New Testament he was one of the witnesses of the Resurrection and the Ascension. MARK Mark the Evangelist is the traditional author of the Gospel of Mark (FIRST WRITTEN OF THE SYNOPTICGOSPELS). He is one of the Seventy Disciples, and the founder of the Church of Alexandria, one of the original four main episcopal sees of Christianity. According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus to saturate Judea with the gospel It is believed that on the night when Jesus was arrested in the garden of Gethsemane Mark had followed him there and the Temple guards saw him, he ran away and dropped his loincloth. THESYNOPTIC GOSPELS The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to specifically as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence, and [1][2][3] similar wording. This degree of parallelism in content, narrative arrangement, language, and sentence structures can only be accounted for by literary interdependence. Many scholars believe that these gospels share the same point of view and are clearly linked. The term [3] synoptic comes from the Greek syn, meaning "together", and optic, meaning "seen". The Synoptic Gospels are the primary source for historical information about Jesus. GOSPELS A gospel is an account that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. The most widely known examples are the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, but the term is also used to refer to the apocryphal gospels, the non-canonical gospels, the Jewish-Christian gospels and the gnostic gospels. TACITUS Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (56 AD – 117 AD) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories —examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69) In his Annals, in book 15, chapter 44, written c. 116 AD, there is a passage which refers to Christ, to Pontius Pilate, and to a mass execution of the Christians after a six-day fire that burned much of Rome in July 64 AD by Nero This narration has long attracted scholarly interest because it is a rare non-Christian reference to the origin of Christianity, the execution of Christ described in the Canonical gospels, and the persecution of Christians in 1st-century Rome. Almost all scholars consider these references to the Christians to be authentic. FOUR-SOURCE HYPOTHESIS A four document hypothesis or four source hypothesis is an explanation for the relationship between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. It posits that there were at least four sources to the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke: the Gospel of Mark, and three lost sources: Q, M-Source, and L source. It was proposed by Burnett Hillman Streeter in 1924 THECLA Thecla was a saint of the early Christian Church, and a reported follower of Paul the Apostle. The only known record of her comes from the apocryphal Acts of Paul and Thecla, probably composed in the 2nd century. According to the Acts of Paul and Thecla, Thecla was a young noble virgin who listened to Paul's "discourse on virginity" and became Paul's follower and a Disciple of Paul's teachings and Ministry. Thecla was miraculously saved from burning at the stake and being eaten by wild beasts. DAMASCUS Damascus, commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine, is the capital and the second largest city of Syria According to the New Testament, Saint Paul was on the road to Damascus when he received a vision of Jesus, and as a result accepted Him as the Messiah. JOSEPHUS Titus Flavius Josephus (37 – c. 100), was a 1st-century Romano- Jewish historian and hagiographer who was born in Jerusalem - then part of Roman Judea - to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He became an advisor and friend of Vespasian's son Titus, serving as his translator when Titus led the Siege of Jerusalem, which resulted -- when the Jewish revolt did not surrender -- in the destruction and the looting and destruction of Herod's Temple (Second Temple). The Jewish War recounts the Jewish revolt against Roman occupation (66–70). Antiquities of the Jews recounts the history of the world from a Jewish perspective for an ostensibly Roman audience. These works provide valuable insight into 1st century Judaism and the background of Early Christianity DIVINE PROVIDENCE In theology, divine providence, or providence, is God's intervention in the world. "Divine Providence" (usually capitalized) is also used as a title of God. A distinction is usually made between "general providence", which refers to God's continuous upholding the existence and natural order of the universe, and "special providence", which refers to God's extraordinary intervention in the life of people. SADDUCEES The Sadducees were a sect or group of Jews that were active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70CE. The sect was identified by Josephus with the upper social and economic echelon of Judean society. As a whole, the sect fulfilled various political, social, and religious roles, including maintaining the Temple. The Sadducees are often compared to other contemporaneous sects, including the Pharisees and the Essenes. Their sect is believed to have become extinct sometime after the destruction of Herod's Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE. The New Testament, specifically the books of Mark and Matthew, describe anecdotes that hint at hostility between the growing Jesus movement and the Sadduceean establishment. These disputes manifest themselves on both theological and social levels. Primarily, Mark describes how the Sadducees challenged Jesus’ belief in
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