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HUMA 1865
Aviva Goldberg

Religion in general: THERE IS NO ONE DEFINITION OF RELIGION THAT CAN ADEQUATELY DESCRIBE ALL THE MANY RELIGIONS OF THIS WORLD: “IT IS APPARENT THAT RELIGION CAN BE SEEN AS A THEOLOGICAL, PHILOSOPHICAL, ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENON OF HUMAN KIND. TO LIMIT RELIGION TO ONLY ONE OF THESE CATEGORIES IS TO MISS ITS MULTI-FACETED NATURE.” – Kile Jones Categories of religious analysis: §EXPERIENTIAL – EMOTIONAL §MATERIAL – culture, nature §MYTHIC – narrative §RITUAL – personal and communal §INSTITUTIONAL – political, social §DOCTRINAL – dogma, theology §ETHICAL – law, morality Judaism: Origins of Judaism - first of monotheistic religions - both Christianity and islam are connected with this religion, and with the sacred scriptures, and with foundational knowledge of monotheist - definition: religion created by ancient Hebrews The myth and narrative: creation story – Hebrew bible - Hebrew scriptures begin with 2 pictures genesis chapter 1: universal conception, the creation of the universe by god in six days - The second pictures: genesis two garden of eden - Genesis three: the expulsion from the garden of eden Misconceptions: it is against modernization, homosexuality, equality, it is a race, it is equated with Zionism, etc. Judaism is… religion developed by ancient Hebrews, based on transcendence of one god who has revealed himself (to abrahamic, etc) in accordance to rabbinic traditions and scriptures; conformity to jewish rites/practices; cultural/social/beliefs of jews; the people of Israel HISTORY – historical events are the result of God’s intervention in response to the Nation of Israel’s (jewish peoples’) behaviour. TORAH: ALSO KNOWN AS FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES or THE LAWS OF MOSES. TORAH – FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES – GENESIS, EXODUS, LEVITICUS, NUMBERS, DEUTERONOMY NEVIM = prophets KETUVIM = writings; The study of Torah and all biblical texts is “inseparable from their interpretation st 1 century JEWISH RELIGIOUS SECTS/ PARTIES: SADDUCEES- aristocracy embraced Greek spread, party of priestly establishment – temple power – read ‘Torah’ laws literally PHARISEES – middle classes, landowners, scribes, leaders of the Judean synagogues –significance: established pre-rabbinic procedures ESSENES – priests who followed a lifestyle of aestheticism –lived in desert communities near Qumran preparing for ‘apocalypse’ (probably authored some of the Dead Sea Scrolls) ZEALOTS – political groups rejected Roman authority – rebelled against the Romans in Judea –last stand at Masada fortress – finally conquered in 73 SAMARITANS – descendants of the early northern Israel tribes – rejected the Prophets and Writings accepted only five books of Moses. CHRISTIANS –a sect within Judaism, emphasized repentance, baptism, chaste communal living, apocalyptists After the expulsion: - rabbinic Judaism….was born - without temples and synagogues, rabbis had meeting places to pray/discuss etc - They undertook to apply biblical/jewish teachings to their contemporary lives/new lives - Rabbinic Judaism emphasize ethical conduct for jews; specific ritual/moral actions to determine proper conduct; use of Talmud teach how to analyze each situation detailed GLOSSARY OF RABBINIC WORKS §AGGADAH – anecdotal stories and narratives in the Talmud and Jewish lore §HALACHA – Rabbinic law found in the Talmud §MIDRASH – commentary of the Torah found in the Talmud and in Torah commentary §MISHNAH – summary of ‘oral law’ §GEMARAH – body of Aramaic commentary attached to the Hebrew of the Mishnah Mishnah + Germarah = Talmud - emphasize on rabbinic Judaism, shifts and changes and how it works - Hellenistic, Diaspora, synagogue, septnint, maccab, know the groups of the first century - Know the word Rabbi, synagogues (places of gathering since they didn’t have one), Diaspora, substitution (from animal sacrifice to prayer type worship), interpretation for the new communal life), list of rabbinic words to know, the gapping process; - Kabbalah (messiah fo
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