Study Guides (238,096)
Canada (114,916)
York University (9,812)
Humanities (387)
HUMA 1865 (5)

Term Test Word Bank.docx

14 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
HUMA 1865
Aviva Goldberg

• 95 Theses: Christianity  Created by Martin Luther  Against the idea of the selling of indulgences in the Roman Catholic Church • Abulafia: Judaism o 1240  Founder of the school of prophetic Kabbalah • Several books : Including commentaries on Pentateuch • Wrote on striving to attain extreme forms of mystical experience • Agape Feast: Christianity  Translated from Greek as the “love feast” • A communal meal that was commonly celebrated by early Christians as part of the Eucharist/holy communion • Asceticism:  Comes from Greek to practise strenuously • describes a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from various worldly pleasures, often with the aim of pursuing religious and spiritual goals o such as fasting (public) • Initially frowned on by many advocates of mystical piety • Baroque Church: Christianity  Artwork important to speak to illiterate masses  People would have a sense of the divine thru artwork  Windows and murals show the stories of Christ • Beguines: Christianity o 13-16 century  Those who live frugally and by their own work (make own food, clothes, etc.), goes out to teach and help others  Live their lives devoted to simplicity and poverty as it is a way they can be independent and not under the control of their husbands and society  Women make vows to each other but do not actually become nuns • Brother Andre: Christianity o 1845-1937  Andre Bassette  First contemporary saint (Canadian) from Quebec. • Brought a nine year old boy out of an irreversible coma • Building a Fence around the Torah: Judaism  It is easy for us to not understand or break the Jewish laws unintentionally.  Making a fence around the Torah is a way to help interpret and prevent violation of these laws • Canon: Christianity & Judaism  A fixed list of documents considered to be Divinely inspired  A list of book acknowledges as scriptures  Jewish canon = ex. Tanakh  Christian canon = ex. Old & New Testament  List of acknowledged saints • Catechism: Christianity  A summary of doctrine  Serves as a learning introduction to the sacraments traditionally used in Christian religious teachings  Doctrine manuals often in forms of questions; Followed by answers to be memorized • Charismatic Movement: Christianity o Mid-1960’s  the international trend of historically mainstream congregations adopting beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostals • Dhikr: Islam  A Sufi practice and ritual. Means remembrance of God • Can be performed in public or in private. • The congregational dhikr is usually held before the darn or the evening prayers. Consists of repetition of the name of god, Allah “there is no god except God” and often accompanied by special bodily movements and, in some Sufi orders, by elaborate breathing techniques • This performance is what distinguishes the various Sufi orders from one another • Documentary Hypothesis: Judaism  Proposes that the Pentateuch was independent editors/multiple sources over time, not by Moses, by a series of redactors/editors  Assumption that there are 4 main sources; J (Yahwist), E (Elohist), D (Deuteronomist) and P (Priestly source) • False Messiah: Judaism o 12 century  Someone who pretends to be the Messiah. Shabbatai Tzvi • Some saw coming of messiah as supernatural, others as natural. This individual would be a human being who would be wise and bring Jews together • Only human beings through good actions could release divine sparks and only when all are released then messiah would come. Some believe that this would mean an age of peace. • Jews were forced to be tax collectors and therefore seen as evil. (Ukraine and Poland etc). They ruthlessly massacred over 3,000 Jews. Many wished for the rise of the Messiah so many started pretended to be him. • Four Source Theory: Christianity  Study of the scripture to provide an explanation for the relationship between the 3 gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) • Proposes that there were at least 4 sources to the Gospel of Matthew and Luke, being the Gospel of Mark, and 3 lost sources • An example of higher criticism as it is an analysis and the study of scriptures to determine who wrote it, when and the literary structure and implications • Gnostic: Primarily Christianity o 216c-274 Syrian Christian named Mani organized his own new religion a largely Christian Gnostic base.  Gnosis : special redeeming knowledge in Greek. • Manichaeism melded Gnostic systems into a new world religion. • Suggests that humanity could be released from its primal entrapment in the sinful cosmos only though divine redemption and esoteric knowledge. Since pure spirit was seen to have fallen into an evil material existence. • Spread mainly among Hellenized Jews and Christians living in an atmosphere of popularized Platonic thought. • Proliferated in the first few centuries of our era • Christian Gnostics viewed Jesus as the bearer if a secret saving knowledge through which the faithful would be redeemed from this material realm • Great Awakening: Christianity o 1740-1743  a revivalist movement that swept New England sparked by the preaching of the gifted and versatile Calvinist theologian Jonathan Edwards • its influence extended well beyond New England and altered the shape of American Protestantism as the nation expanded westward after the Revolutionary War • Camp meetings inspired mass conversions • Hadith: Islam  Literally means tradition • To qualify as a Hadith, a text must be accompanied by its chain of transmission, beginning with the compiler or last transmitter going back to the Prophets. • The aim is to ascertain the authenticity of a particular text by establishing completeness • Hajj: Islam  The fifth pillar of Islam which is an annual pilgrimage to Mecca • Instituted by Abraham at God’s command after he and his son Ishmael were ordered to build Ka’ba • Begins on the eight of Shy ak-Hijjah, the twelfth month of Islamic calendar • Pilgrims stand in solemn prayer and supplication till sunset as though standing before God for judgement on the last day • A person returns from a sincerely performed Hajj cleansed of all sins and as pure as the day he or she was born • Haskallah: Judaism  The Jewish Enlightenment = a movement among European Jews • Movement that supported the new found freedoms and adoption of Enlightenment values, in hope for a better integration into European society a • Many advocated coming out of the ghetto physically, mentally and spiritually • Now able to participate in education in secular studies • Hellenistic: o 320 BC-30 BC  The period of time when Greek was adopted as the major language and culture of the people in the eastern Mediterranean  Hellenistic Judaism = combined Jewish religion with elements of the Greek culture • Hijab: Islam o Time of the caliphate  Veiling of women • The Quran at no point refers to this, only states that women should be dressed modestly • According to the Hadith tradition, it was adopted probably in the time of the caliphate under the influence of eastern Christians and ancient Greeks • Iconoclastic Controversy: Christianity o Occurred between mid 8 century and mid 9 century  in the Byzantine Christian church, over whether or not Christians should continue to revere icons • Result of conflict was the development of the distinction between veneration and reverence • Inquisition: Christianity th o 12 century  a group of institutions within the roman catholic church whose aim was to combat heresy • Isaac Luria: Judaism th o 16 century Kabbalist  Revolutionized the study of Jewish mysticism through Kabbalah  Interpreted Jewish law and believed the each commandment had a mystical meaning • Jewish Renewal: Judaism  A “pan-denomination” within Judaism  Liberal in view, neo-Hasidic, neo-Kabbalistic  Re-interpreted aspects of worship and mystical teaching (ex. Chanting) and very liberal ways of thinking of rabbinic law • Jihad: Islam  Literally means “struggle” which can refer to anything i.e. temptation, sin, etc these are peaceful means of jihad, does not necessarily mean hostile  Can refer to waging war with self to improve social conduct • You can also carry it out with your tongue, or your heart, with a pen and finally with weapons. So it doesn’t HAVE to be militant. This has been translated to war • Kateri Tekakwitha: Christianity st  Canonization of 1 native Canadian  When she passed away, the small pox on her face disappeared • She was declared a saint; if you prayed to her, miracle would occur (ex. Ill boy with flesh eating disease had a full recovery) • Khalifah: Islam  Someone who represents or acts on behalf of another • On the death of Muhammad, his closes companion, Abu Bakr became his successor or representative • Liberation Theology: Christianity o 1950’s-1960’s  Roman Catholic theology which interprets the teachings of Jesus Christ in relation to a liberation from unjust economic, political, or social conditions • Maccabees: Judaism o 166 BCE  general revolt broke out, led by a group of fighters = Maccabees • Objective was to expel the Seleucids (dynasty ruling over Syria and large part of western Asia from 311 to 65 BC) • Reasserted Judaism, partly by forced conversion • Expanded boundaries of Jewish state to its pre-exilic boundaries • Reduced influence of Hellenism and Hellenistic Judaism • Medina: Islam o 622 CE  Means “City” and is located in Saudi Arabia • Originally Yathrib but became to known as “the city” • In Medina Muhammad established the first Islamic
More Less

Related notes for HUMA 1865

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.