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Midterm

terms midterm

12 Pages
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Department
Humanities
Course Code
HUMA 1970
Professor
Cheryl Cowdy- Crawford

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Description
Terms: Chapter 1: Childhood in Crisis- The idea of a child’s behaviour and values seeming corrupted to the adult world. Recycled themes, childhood is always in crisis Discourse- used in social constructionist work to mean a whole set of interconnected ideas that work together in a self-contained way, ideas that are held together by a particular ideology or view of the world Universal Child- The ideal view of children constructed by society Moral Panic- Panic over morality and values that are expected of children (Miley Cyrus) Chapter 2: French Revolution - Social construction- A theoretical perspective that explores which “reality” is negotiated in everyday life through peoples interactions and through sets of discourse. Puritan Discourse of Childhood (Thomas Hobbes)- childhood as a time of evil and wildness The Tabula rasa Discourse (John Locke) - child as a blank slate, childhood as a time of becoming Romantic Discourse (Rousseau) European Historical Time Chapter 3: Development: The process by which an organism (human or animal) grows and changes through its life span. Generally, related to age. Positivist approach: Observation and measurement as a means to understand developmental models. The basic principle is to evaluate competing theories; beliefs and claims about childhood, in order to find out what children are really like. Linear model of development- must progress through stages to attain certain milestones Chapter 4: Anthropology: from Greek world “anthropos” (man/humankind/humanity) and “logia” (study of) social anthropology: the study of culture, values, customs, beliefs and practices which frame a way of life for a specific group ethnography: from Greek “ethos” (people/folk) and “graphia” (writing) Thin description: gives no context Thick description: highlights context to give meaning to something cultural relativism: all cultural beliefs and practices are of equal value and need to be studied mutually Participant Observation: emersion of self completely into the surrounding culture Development: The process by which an organism (human or animal) grows and changes through its life span. Generally, related to age. Positivist approach: Observation and measurement as a means to understand developmental models. The basic principle is to evaluate competing theories; beliefs and claims about childhood, in order to find out what children are really like. Linear model of development- must progress through stages to attain certain milestones Chapter 6: Quantitative Data- Numbers intended to indicate frequency of various types of event and/or the degree to which objects (including people) possess some type of attribute Numerical Data- May be the result of counting things or, result from a process of measurement aimed at capturing varying degrees to which a set of objects possesses some property, or amount of time something has existed Average- Way of summarizing measurement scores of a population or sample Statistical Theory- Provides a basis for assessing likelihood that a frequency or a measure of calculation for a sample will be a reasonably accurate estimate for the whole population from which it was drawn Randomized Control- People randomly assigned to “treatment” and “control” groups or between receiving different treatment Qualitative Data- consists of words rather than numbers Field Notes- popular qualitative data method written by researchers based on participant observation Mixed Method Movement- Believes that there are benefits of combining qualitative & quantitative data Documentary Approach- non-evaluative describes and explains behavior observed, how it arose out of cultural context, consequences for adult personality Cultural Relativism- Denying overarching set of criteria or underlying basis on which we judge cultural practices Ethnocentrism- Judging other cultures by standards of their own People: Guest Lecturer: Mary Twi - the local language of Ghana Mary – The author of the book. Throughout the book we go on adventures with Mary reliving the experiences that Mary did throughout her life. Nana – Mary’s Nana was someone that she had feared and took for granted. It was only after she had passed Mary has wished she had spent more time with her. From the time Mary was born Nana played in important role in her life, whether it was Nana reshaping Mary’s head so she would have the royal shape, or trying to fight off girls mistreating or eating her food she would protect her from anything. She had the most impact on Mary’s life and her death impacted her to start writing. Daddy and Mummy – Her dad had many jobs some included a teacher in Achimota School, then at University of Ghana, working for the government and a preacher. Her mom was also a teacher. She is presented as caring and loving mother. They had an arrange marriage at first Mum was not impressed with him. They were married in 1967 and some how became happy together. Chapter 1: Palmer: believes technology change big impact on modern life. This damages social emotional and cognitive development. Kids thinks that when given to them, wanting things and buying things makes them happy (this just misplaces what happiness really is) Furedi: magazines and media sources indicate the family is in crisis. Parents loses confidence in parenting result in going to parenting magazines. Child safety = paranoid parenting. Parents no longer trust other adults to protect children. Instead think they are all abusers. Said children abuses this fact to exercise power over parents to get what they want. Cunningham: change of experience of child hood starting in the 1500s. the process of civilization creates greater distance between child and adults. In the 20th centery the future would be determined by how kids were treated. At the time kids were considered asset to the state. Child health was a public concern. Cunningham believes that the two biggiest things to affect childhood are compulsory schooling and reduction in infant mortality. Believes the change from valuing kids as a economic value to a emotional investment was the best change ever. Cohen studied mods and rockers in England, focused the role of media potraying young people as “folk devils” Geoffery Pearson: every 20 years there is a moral panic about youth. Each panic repeats the themes of the last panic. When the panic just fades from memory it comes back (iy never leaves) Marten Barker: media depicts on what children should be. Certain things are for bad boys and magazines depict girls to be skinny. Penny dreadful 1950s comic was for bad boys. (today: violent games, Jean- Jacques Rousseau Romantic movement (18th Century) Saw childhood as a time of innocence Children need protection from the corrupt world (adult world) Jenks, James, Prout new sociology of childhood idea of a social construct (childhood shaped by society) how do we give meaning to childhood Chapter 2: 1. Nicholas Stargart 2. Philippe Aries- suggested childhood as a category distinguished from adulthood 3. William Powell Frith 4. Lloyd Demause 5. John Lock 6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau- nature is good. society is bad 7. Hans Merckler 8. Thomas Hobbes- “childhood as a time of evil and wildness” -belief in original sin. salvation comes from God alone Chapter 3: Charles Darwin: -Kept a diary about son William (Doddy) - Maintained objectivity “this infant” - Linked aged to developmental achievements - Looks for patterns of competence - Linear model of development. Progression through milestones Arnold Gesell: - Studied abnormal development - Observed natural behaviours -Organized observations into 5 categories (normative summaries):motor, language, adaptive, personal and social. Jean Piaget: -Universal stages in children’s development - Offered scientific research to support progressive and child-centered education - 4 stages of development : - Sensori-motor: 0-2 -Pre-operational: 2-6 -Concrete operation: 6-12 - Formal operational: 12 yrs and older John Bowlby: (1907-1990) - Effects of maternal deprivation on children - Prescribes children’s needs for care - Wanted to reform practices in childcare Judy Dunn - Through scientific observation can learn more than simple scientific experiments with children - Observe children in family setting (as opposed to in an office or lab) - Children as active participants in cultural practices that structure their own worlds Lev Vygotsky: - Challenged the idea that development is a universal and natural process. - Argued tat child development is embedded in the so
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