World Religion Test #2 Review
Puja - Hinduism, India, type of bhakti yoga because it is devotion. It is the ritual and
household worship of Deities. Hindus set aside space at home for a shrine to hold pictures
or small images of the figure, either God of guru. The rituals performed at home are sim-
plified versions of temple rituals. The rituals are simple and involve things like feeding
the the diety, lighting a candle and reciting prayers. It is a type of ritual that is good for
the lower castes because typically rituals and prayers are done solely by the highest caste,
which is brahmin.
Ise - Shinto, refers to architecture, the temples, where you worship kami. There is Ise vil-
lage where shrines, Ise Grand Shrine talk about kami. Kami is a life-energy that exists in
the world, its basically a way of worshipping to reach that energy that circulates through
out the world. Ise is both a place referring to Ise city it also refers to the architecture of
shrines and how they are built. Made out of natural materials, and need to be rebuilt every
20 years. Shinto belief is old and spiritual, so each shrine has specific coordinates has to
be exactly the same as the previous shrine, and is austere, which means simple.
QingMing - Chinese folk religion. Qingming is a spring festival in China, happens on the
first day of the fifth solar term (spring), denotes a time where people go outside and enjoy
it, but tend to the graves of the departed ones. Talk about ancient history, ancestors sup-
posedly a lot to talk about..
Torii - Shinto, Traditional japanese gate found at the entrance of shinto shrines. Very sim-
ple, follows the principles of Ise architecture. Tie into ise. story behind the shape of torii,
has to do with a bird landing on something. Division between to kinds of spaces, walking
through the torii you walk through a sacred space, the other side is just your typical
Lingbao - Daoism, China . daoist school. More religious side of Daoism.Around 4th cen-
tury CE. Lingbao responds to the prophet based school of daoism. Believe in Lao Tzu.
The one who rode into india on a water buffalo. Book is called the Dao Dai Ching. Be-
gins Daoism. Believe Buddha was actually Lao Tzu, and that he founded Buddhism.
Lingbao was a sort of Daoist movement to give Daoism more religious respect in a sense.
Believe in reincarnation. *check slides*
Smrti - Hinduism, “That which is remembered” It is a Hindu Source of knowledge. Cre-
ated texts that happen after the Veda period. Consist of the epics, the mahabarata and the
ramayana. Puranas also in the smrti. It is also a knowledge that you get from oral tradi-
tion passed down from teacher to student. Only Brahmins had access to Shruti (Vedas),
After the vedic period the kshatriya wrote about karma and dharma. This allowed the
possibility of lower castes to obtain “knowledge”
▯ Koan/Gongan - Zen buddhism, in order to have an enlightened experience, you have to
overcome your mind and rational thinking. Concept is simple, we are alive we exist, but
we never get to fully exist because we can not interpret existence. Koan are riddles that
don’t necessarily make sense. Example being what was the face of your ancestor before
they were born. They are difficult to process, so when you can not process it you have
reached enlightenment. Haiku is associated with zen buddhism. Zen is japanese version
of chan. Mention that there is no scripture in Zen. Story is buddha comes to students with
a flower and they are waiting for him to say something, a student smiles and this repre-
sents the truth that can’t be expressed through words. Focus is to overcome language and
experience truth since we are blinded by our words.
Zao Jun - Chinese folk religion. Zao Jun is the kitchen God. Man who leaves his wife for
a younger lady. He then goes blind and the young lady leaves him.After she leaves him
he travels and starts begging. Ends up at his wives house and apologizes to her. She for-
gives him and tells him to open his eyes and he magically can see again.After he sees
again, he feels so ashamed and throws himself into the furnace/fire.At the end of the year
he reports what he has seen in the kitchen of your family to the emperor. In order to get a
good report you bribe him, rub his lips with honey and various things like that. Example
of a level of God, mention other Gods in Pantheon of Gods.
Temple of heaven - tied in with confucianism, Temple in beijing, it is circles where annu-
al ceremonies to pray to heaven for good harvest occured. tie into mandate of heaven.
Temple of heaven is now a tourist attraction. Initially only priests were allowed on top of
it, referring to the idea that communism has died down religion in china.
Bhodisattva - Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism and Shinto, In Theravada, it is one
who is in the process of achieving enlightenment. In Mahayana One who has reached en-
lightenment and returns to aid other people in achieving enlightenment. In Shinto, it is
one who returns from enlightenment in order to save the ones who suffer. Not just hu-
mans,Also Buddhas that have spiritual existence. Guanying was a buddha that comes to
earth to give passion and mercy.
Four noble truths - Buddhism, Dukkha -All life is suffering. Dukkha means dislocated,
out of joint, suffering is the symptom of a disease that is our desires and attachments
which is called trishna. third is to end desire, so you will end suffering nabbana. Fourth is
to follow the eight fold path. Which constitutes golden rules. Talk about Sidhartha, leads
the life of a prince but even with all of his wealth he realizes that you can not avoid suf-
fering.After seeing the 3 suffering people and the holy man. Starves himself. Talk about
6 forms of suffering. Death, love, hate, birth, aging, and sickness.
▯ Asceticism - Buddhism, but it rejects this, Buddha goes through suffering, starves himself
by eating a grain of rice a day. Starve but don’t overeat, came up with middle way.As-
ceticism is all about self discipline, they put themselves through pain and suffering. Bud-
dha goes through suffering, starves himself by eating a grain of rice a day. No sex is a
form of asceticism that the buddhists endure. Can tie into samsara, the four noble truths
Sutra - Hinduism and Buddhism, India, Literally means a thread or line that holds things
together. In hinduism the sutras are sacred text made after the Vedas, examples are the
Shiva sutras, Yoga Sutras, and the KAMAsutras. In Buddhism the sutra’s are regarded as
oral teachings of Gautama. Most are in the Mahayana, and an example of a type of bud-
dhism formed from the sutras is pure land buddhism. Its basis is the diamond sutra. The
sutra talks about the palace where buddha lives and the pure land buddhists believe that
this palace is the western heaven, and they can achieve enlightenment faster there.
Tripitaka - Scripture from Therevada Buddhism, Theravada buddhism tries to portray the
original message of the buddha. oldest buddhist scriptures. Shakyamuni was the Sri
Lankian translation of Sidhartha. He did not write down any of his teachings for cen-
turies, but they were finally written down after the tradtion was threatened due to famine.
Put into “3 baskets” 3 collections of buddhist scriptures that all deal with aspects of bud-
dhist life. one is the rules of being a monk, Dharmas and teachings, and the lives of the
Kamidana - Shinto, Japan. Kami are the Gods, Dana means little shrine. Its is a little
shrine for the Kami that is supposed to be in every shinto home. Typically placed high on
a wall. Worship are the kamidana typically consists of the offering of simple prayers,
food and flowers. Before worshipping the family members must wash their hands. The
Kami is a life-energy that exists in the world, its basically a way of worshipping to reach
that energy that circulates through out the world.
Nembutsu - Pureland Buddhism in Japan. Sect of Mahayana Buddhism, Buddhism for the
masses. Referred to as the western heaven. Believe in being reincarnated to “pureland”
where the buddha lives, and it is easier to achieve nirvana from here. In order to get there
you have to chant. “NamaAmida Butsu”.Amida is one of the buddhas, an immortal bud-
dha. Siddhartha Gautama is theAmida Buddha, had a human, and immortal form. Oppo-
site of Zen Buddhism, where there are no beliefs in western heaven. Zen is more about
self reliance. Pureland is more popular and everyone relies on eachother. Honen was the
founder of Japanese Pureland buddhism, went to China and brought it back to japan with
Laws of Manu - Hinduism, Manu wrote orthodox laws about treatment of women and
role of castes. part of a genre called the dh