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IHST 1002 Study Guide - Winter 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Protein, Liver, Bacteria


Department
Global Health
Course Code
IHST 1002
Professor
Nicolette Richardson
Study Guide
Midterm

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IHST 1002
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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Wednesday, March 16, 2016
IHST 1001
Review:
Our basic function is kidney sifting through all blood, picking out things we no longer
needed and putting them out through the urine. Because all the blood and things inside
the blood is constantly getting filtered by the kidneys, the kidney will maintain BP and
BV, and solute concentration
Kidneys are where we make urine.
It will go down to the ureter, and these will go to the urinary bladder where it is stored
until it fills up then down to the urethra.
Renal artery brings oxygen rich supply to kidneys, renal vein carries away
deoxygenated blood and waste products.
Basic structure: cortex, medulla, and pelvis.
Right at the cortex and edge of medulla, the renal pyramids is where we start filtering
the blood.
We do our filtration in the renal pyramid in medulla, the little ends of the pyramid where
urine comes out is called the papillae of the pyramid, they then come into the openings
called minor calyx and a few of these form together to make a major calyx, which form
together to form the renal pelvis.
Once the urine is there, it’ll go out through the ureter.
We filter blood to maintain homeostasis, and in the blood it carries all our nutrients and
solutes, the kidney is going to consistently check the blood and alter the level of all
things we don’t need
The area where the ureter and blood vessels are coming out is called the hilum
Kidneys are protected by the ribs.
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Wednesday, March 16, 2016
Right kidney sits under the liver.
Ureters
-one on each side
-come down to urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
-are also retroperitoneal
-the walls are muscular as there is smooth muscles that contract to push urine out
(detrusor muscle)
-when it gets really full, the detrusor muscle contracts
-walls are stretchy
-most bladders can hold up to a litre of urine
-there is a stretch receptor that gets to brain telling it to empty
-some people have more sensitive receptors
-you can choose when to pee to an extent, if you’re not at the 1L point, you can
choose to pee it out, or hold it in when it’s full because of sphincters
-when we leave the bladder, we’re going through another long tube called the urethra
-male urethra is longer
-easier for bacteria to get higher up into urethra and bladder which is why it’s more
common for females to get UTIs
-we have smooth muscle sphincters that we don’t get to make decisions about like the
internal urethra sphincter and then we have skeletal muscle sphincters like the we
can make conscious decisions about some like the external urethral orifice which we
can consciously control
-we have smooth muscles that can’t control, and skeletal that we can control
-we only have control to a certain extent
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