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Solution Assignment-2.doc

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Information Technology
ITEC 1000
Paul Kashiyama

This webpage has designed and created to represent the solutions of course assignment-2 of ITEC 1000: Introduction to Information Technologies. Little Man Computer model is originally developed by Dr. Stuart Madnick in 1963. The model demonstrates how different components of a computer works to complete an instruction. This assignment is prepared to solve total seven problems. Each problem is related with Little Man Computer Model as well as recent development of computer technology. Over the last 50 years computer technology is changed in-terms of capacity and speed but the basic model remains almost same. Question 1: What criteria define Von Neumann architecture? Identify clearly and coherently. Solution John von Neumann the famous computer scientist joined as a consultant of ENIC or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer project at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945. With a very limited capacity on that period, ENIC had very limited memory in 20 locations each could contain a 10-digit decimal number. Another one hundred numbers could be store on read only memory. Programs were stored externally with heard wired device called “Patch Panel”. It needed many hours to change the program and Patch Panel had to rewiring Von proposed an improvement of the ENIC architecture. The most important change in the ENIC design was i. The concept of storage area where both program and data can be a stored internally. It solved the problem retrieve program using patch panel of ENIC machine and saved hundreds of hours of rewiring the Patch Panel. ii. ENIC machine was based on 10-digit decimal number. Von Neumann architecture proposed a binary system to process data. This concept allows the similarity of ON/OFF switches and Boolean logic. The Little Man Computer is an example of using Von Neumann architecture as a model of computer design. Little Man Computer Introduces the concept of memory, data store location and data operation. In deed invention of Von Neumann Architecture in 1945 is still the basic rule of modern computer technology. By this time capacity of storage, memory and processing speed became faster and faster but design remain almost same. Thus, Von Neumann is considered as the icon of computer revolution. Criteria that defines Von Neumann architecture is as follows: 1. Memory holds both programs and data known as Stored Program Concept which allows programs to be changed easily. 2. There is a single sequential numeric address for each and every memory location and so Memory is addressed linearly. 3. Memory is addressed by the location number without regard to the data contained within - Memory is always addressed by its sequential numeric address despite what data it contains. Question 2: The following Little Man program is supposed to add two number inputs, subtract a third input number from the sum, and out put the result. (a) What is wrong with this program? A program is written in wrong format compare to what a user wants to perform. These current instructions are instructing Little Man to subtract addition of IN1 and IN2 from IN3 whereas user wants Little Man to subtract IN3 from addition of IN1 and IN2. (b) Repair the program so that it produces the correct results. OUT = IN1 + IN2 - IN3 mailbox mnemonic code Numeric code 00 IN 901 01 STO 99 399 02 IN 901 03 ADD 99 199 04 STO 99 399 05 IN 901 06 SUB 299 07 OUT 902 08 COB 000 Solution OUT = IN1 + IN2 - IN3 mailbox mnemonic code Numeric code 00 IN 901 01 STO 99 399 02 IN 901 03 ADD 99 199 04 STO 99 399 05 IN 901 06 STO98 398 07 LDA99 599 08 SUB 98 298 09 OUT 902 10 COB 000 Question 3: A modern computer has a 32-bit memory address register. How much memory (in gigabyte) can this computer address? Show your work. Solution Memory Address Registrar (MAR) determines the addressable memory capacity of a computer. For example in the Little Man Computer a two digit addresses results in total one hundred mailboxes or memory. Thus for MAR with width k bits allows total Memory Address M = 2k 36 2 = 68,719,476,736 36 -bit allows 68,719,476,736 In Gigabytes: 1kilobyte = 1024 bytes 68,719,476,736 / (1024 x 1024 x 1024) = 68,719,476,736 / 1,073
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