This webpage has designed and created to represent the solutions of course assignment-3 of
ITEC 1000: Introduction to Information Technologies.
Problem 1: Why is it important to have an organization that manages IP addresses and
domain names? Identify at least significant two reasons.
To establish communication system between electronic devices need unique identifier for each of
the devices which is called Internet Protocol or IP address. Someone has to organize these IP
addresses through standard protocol. Thus whenever a computer wants to communicate with
another computer or server, it has to be connected through the IP address. An IP address is the
combination of numerical numbers. For example 188.8.131.52 is the IP address of York
University server computer. If someone wants to connect with York University website, the
person has to send request typing this number on the web browser. But this number is not easy
to remember for users. Domain is a text code that identifies the IP address. For example
www.yorku.ca represents the IP address 184.108.40.206. Either of these two identifiers gives
same result. To do this job worldwide, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers (ICANN) a US non-profit organization was created in 1998. ICANN is the main
responsible organization to co-ordinate global internet protocol.
The significant reasons to have an organization that manages IP addresses and domain names
• To take care of the loads required.
• To manage queries and return current IP for addresses in that domain.
• For accurate uploads.
• To choose a user friendly name that can be remember by users.
• Also to manage registers for internet protocol identifier.
Problem 2: Name at least four different application layer protocols other than HTTP. For
each, describe the purpose of the protocol, and give a brief overview of the methodology of
Any network communication procedure consists five different layers. The communication starts
at application layer. HTTP is one of protocols. There are many other application layer protocols
other than HTTP. These are for example SCSI, FTP, DNS, DHCP, SMTP and SSH etc.
SCSI or Small Computer System Interface is an Input-Output bus protocol which is used to
connect hard disk of a computer with other devices. With SCSI protocol a hard disk can be
located and be operated anywhere in the network.
1 FTP or File Transfer Protocol is used to transfer data to or from remote host computer over
TCP/IP based network. Client server model over internet is an example to communicate through
FTP protocol. For example if we want to connect a remote desktop with York University Student
Webpage Server, we can use an interface named Core FTP Le which use FTP protocol to
connect the server of IP address 220.127.116.11. Once the desktop is connected with the York
Server we can see file paths of both remote desktop and York server. Once FTP Le is activated
we can transfer files from each other.
DNS protocol is the designed to establish communication system among computers through Text
name or Domain Name instead of a long IP address. It is also an unique identifier of any server
computer which is connected in the internet. Thus, the protocol is very important so that all
communication devices all over the world get under specific rules. DNS is used to translate
Domain Name into IP address. When a client computer sent a request to open website for
example www.google.ca it actually sent a query to a DNS server to get the IP address of
www.google.ca. DNS server keeps the registry of IP address and corresponding Domain Name.
When the client receives the IP address from DNS server it opens the Google website. Thus
DNS technology enables the client computer to find the website IP address whenever typing the
DHCP or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is another important protocol applied in the
application layer. This protocol is introduced to solve IP addresses under IPv4 system.
According to DHCP protocol a computer is assigned an IP address randomly from a pool of
addresses whenever it is connected to the network. During the network connection client
computer sends a query to the DHCP server. In response to the query DHCP server assigns an IP
addresses from the pool including other parameters like Domain name, DNS IP address, subnet
mask, and a default IP address of internet gateway . It is called dynamic allocation of IP
addresses for connecting or disconnecting of client computers. This allocation or lease is given
for a fixed period of time. Most DHCP servers renew the lease before the time is expired so the
client computer can continue keeping same IP address while it is actively connected.
Problem 3: Before the invention of Ethernet, researchers at the University of Hawaii
proposed a broadcast radio network called ALOHANet as a means to provide wireless
links between the Hawaiian Islands. Each node had a radio transmitter which could be
used to send data packets. When two stations attempted to transmit simultaneously, a
collision occurred, and like Ethernet, each station would wait a random period of time;
then try again. Compare ALOHANet with Ethernet.