The hierarchy of data is bit,byte,field,record,file,database.
There are 3 ways to access data and this is 1. Direct access method , 2. Sequential access
method, 3. Indexed access method.
Problems with the file environment there are 5 this is 1.Data redundancy 2.”” Inconsistency
GUAM is transformed into Information Management System.
Database Architecture is Centralized Database and Distributed database.
To create a Database you need 1.Conceptual design: semantic data models. 2.Logical design:
model of database showing org based on DBMS. 3.Physical Design: Shows ways db is stored in
secondary storage devices.
DB components is key,primary key,entity,attribute, entity class.
Entity relationship diagram is process of conceptual database design.
Degree of a relationship is a set of numbers in the entity class.
Data models is the way data is conceptually designed: 3 components to this: 1.Hierarchial
Commonly used operations in a DB are (REL DB) are Select, project, join.
DBMS is software program that provides access to DB’S.
A schema is description of logical structure of all data in DB.
A subschema is a logical view for a group of users.
SQL Standard DDL and DML to operate in relational databases.
In a multidimensional DB the data is stored in arrays and tables.
A data mart has a reduced scope to a specific subject, it is also a scaled down version of a DW.
OLAP is data analysis that is done by end users online. Data processing through Drill-down and
Business intelligence is gaining the right data at the right time to make a positive impact on the
Both OLAP and Data mining(DM) support decision making. OLAP is Top, Query Driven. While DM
is Bottom-up discovery.
Data mining provides accessible data from the DW. Its components are the following(CCSFA):
DW supports operational database.
To create a data warehouse(DW) we need 3 actions Extract, Transfer, Load.
Type of data that are stored within the DW are:
o Current data(CD),Historical Data(HD),Lightly summarized data(LSD),Highly summarized
data(HSD),Metadata(This is divided into technical data and business data).
Trends in DBMS development
o Object-relational databases(ORD).Apps require to manipulate with audio,graphic data,
video o Object-oriented dbs(OOD ). 1.Object Model(OM) 2.Object definition Language(ODL)
3.object query language(OQL) 4.OOP Language bindings.
o Data Warehouses(DW). A multidimensional DB designed to support strategic decision
There are 4 components to DBMS
o Data model defines way data structured(DM) . Describes Data
o Data Definition Language(DDL). Assist in designing and programming.
o Data Manipulation Language(DML).Collection of instructions and allowable parameters.
o Data Dictionary(DD).
Telecommunications medium is anything that carries a signal that receives through the
Data are static. While signals are dynamic(both can be analog or digital).
The main components of protocol are the following(SST): Semantics, Syntax, Timing.
The internet uses a non-proprietary standards and protocol with exchanged information world
In the internet data is split into small portions and wrapped into packets.
TCP is a transport layer protocol.
IP is a network layer protocol.
The ip address uniquely identifies each computer in the network.
There are 2 types of internet services(CS,IRS): Communications Services and Information
The WWW is accepted standards for formatting , displaying info, etc.
Tunneling is the process by which VPN transfers info(this does not substitute encryption).
Intranet is a private network that uses internet software and TCP/IP.
Extranet is a network that links business partners to one another over the internet. It has 2
o Virtual private network(VPN): Secure connection between 2 points on the net.
There are 3 types of internet applications:
o Telnet: protocol which allows users to log on internet and use their own computer as a
o SSH(secure shell):secure telnet
o FTP: This transfers files from and to the net server computer.
Domain name systems(DNS) derived the names of the computers. This is also based on
o Distributed DB There are 3 types of data processing in an organization(CDD):
o Centralized: Where processing occurs in a single location.
o Decentralized: Processing is placed at various locations.
o Distributed: Placed at remote locations but connected to a network.(type of data are P-
P,Client/server,file server processing.
TPS is a major business operation. It has the following actions(DC,DE,DC,DM,DS,DP):
o Data Collection
o Data editing
o Data correction
o Data manipulation
o Data storage
o Document production
There are 3 types of data processing.(BP,OP,HP):
o Batch: data processed separately.
o Online: data processed when received, broken down into (CLIENT tps,Internet-based
Disaster recovery plans are a set of actions that have to be taken to restore a computer system.
The TPS Audit identifies areas of improvement.
There are 2 ways to integrate information systems(SMS,ERP):
o Supply chain management system: uses an integrated package in 1 or several functional
Value Chain: series of activities including warehouses, marketing sale
Supply Chain: flow of materials material suppliers to end customers.
Information cash flow from end customers to raw material suppliers.
Upstream management: Managing raw materials.
Downstream: managing finished products.
o Enterprise resource planning: controls all major business processes with single software.
Improves work progress,upgrade technology, improved access to Operational
decision making ,eliminates costly systems.
Ecommerce is classified as(5)It began in the 1970’s:
Business-Consumer : most visible part
Electronic Data Interchange(EDI) has data formatting standards, uses VAN,internet.