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York University
Information Technology
ITEC 1010
Marina Erechtchoukova

Chapter 3  The hierarchy of data is bit,byte,field,record,file,database.  There are 3 ways to access data and this is 1. Direct access method , 2. Sequential access method, 3. Indexed access method.  Problems with the file environment there are 5 this is 1.Data redundancy 2.”” Inconsistency etc..  GUAM is transformed into Information Management System.  Database Architecture is Centralized Database and Distributed database.  To create a Database you need 1.Conceptual design: semantic data models. 2.Logical design: model of database showing org based on DBMS. 3.Physical Design: Shows ways db is stored in secondary storage devices.  DB components is key,primary key,entity,attribute, entity class.  Entity relationship diagram is process of conceptual database design.  Degree of a relationship is a set of numbers in the entity class.  Data models is the way data is conceptually designed: 3 components to this: 1.Hierarchial 2.Network 3.Relational.  Commonly used operations in a DB are (REL DB) are Select, project, join.  DBMS is software program that provides access to DB’S.  A schema is description of logical structure of all data in DB.  A subschema is a logical view for a group of users.  SQL Standard DDL and DML to operate in relational databases.  In a multidimensional DB the data is stored in arrays and tables.  A data mart has a reduced scope to a specific subject, it is also a scaled down version of a DW.  OLAP is data analysis that is done by end users online. Data processing through Drill-down and Roll-up.  Business intelligence is gaining the right data at the right time to make a positive impact on the business.  Both OLAP and Data mining(DM) support decision making. OLAP is Top, Query Driven. While DM is Bottom-up discovery.  Data mining provides accessible data from the DW. Its components are the following(CCSFA): o Clustering,Classifications,Sequencing,Forcasting,Association.  DW supports operational database.  To create a data warehouse(DW) we need 3 actions Extract, Transfer, Load.  Type of data that are stored within the DW are: o Current data(CD),Historical Data(HD),Lightly summarized data(LSD),Highly summarized data(HSD),Metadata(This is divided into technical data and business data).  Trends in DBMS development o Object-relational databases(ORD).Apps require to manipulate with audio,graphic data, video o Object-oriented dbs(OOD ). 1.Object Model(OM) 2.Object definition Language(ODL) 3.object query language(OQL) 4.OOP Language bindings. o Data Warehouses(DW). A multidimensional DB designed to support strategic decision making.  There are 4 components to DBMS o Data model defines way data structured(DM) . Describes Data o Data Definition Language(DDL). Assist in designing and programming. o Data Manipulation Language(DML).Collection of instructions and allowable parameters. o Data Dictionary(DD). Chapter 4  Telecommunications medium is anything that carries a signal that receives through the interface.  Data are static. While signals are dynamic(both can be analog or digital).  The main components of protocol are the following(SST): Semantics, Syntax, Timing.  The internet uses a non-proprietary standards and protocol with exchanged information world wide.  In the internet data is split into small portions and wrapped into packets.  TCP is a transport layer protocol.  IP is a network layer protocol.  The ip address uniquely identifies each computer in the network.  There are 2 types of internet services(CS,IRS): Communications Services and Information retrieval services(WWW).  The WWW is accepted standards for formatting , displaying info, etc.  Tunneling is the process by which VPN transfers info(this does not substitute encryption).  Intranet is a private network that uses internet software and TCP/IP.  Extranet is a network that links business partners to one another over the internet. It has 2 infrastructures. o Virtual private network(VPN): Secure connection between 2 points on the net. o Firewall  There are 3 types of internet applications: o Telnet: protocol which allows users to log on internet and use their own computer as a terminal. o SSH(secure shell):secure telnet o FTP: This transfers files from and to the net server computer.  Domain name systems(DNS) derived the names of the computers. This is also based on hierarchical DB: o Variable-depth o Distributed DB  There are 3 types of data processing in an organization(CDD): o Centralized: Where processing occurs in a single location. o Decentralized: Processing is placed at various locations. o Distributed: Placed at remote locations but connected to a network.(type of data are P- P,Client/server,file server processing. Chapter 5  TPS is a major business operation. It has the following actions(DC,DE,DC,DM,DS,DP): o Data Collection o Data editing o Data correction o Data manipulation o Data storage o Document production  There are 3 types of data processing.(BP,OP,HP): o Batch: data processed separately. o Online: data processed when received, broken down into (CLIENT tps,Internet-based tps). o Hybrid.  Disaster recovery plans are a set of actions that have to be taken to restore a computer system.  The TPS Audit identifies areas of improvement.  There are 2 ways to integrate information systems(SMS,ERP): o Supply chain management system: uses an integrated package in 1 or several functional areas.  Value Chain: series of activities including warehouses, marketing sale  Supply Chain: flow of materials material suppliers to end customers. Information cash flow from end customers to raw material suppliers.  Upstream management: Managing raw materials.  Downstream: managing finished products. o Enterprise resource planning: controls all major business processes with single software.  Improves work progress,upgrade technology, improved access to Operational decision making ,eliminates costly systems.  Ecommerce is classified as(5)It began in the 1970’s:  Business-Consumer : most visible part  Business-business  Consumer-consumer  Egoverment  Mobile  Electronic Data Interchange(EDI) has data formatting standards, uses VAN,internet.  Ecommerce
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