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KINE 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Denotation, Martina Hingis, Connotation

Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 1000
Hernan Humana
Study Guide

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Kine 1000 Lecture Midterm Notes
Toward a New Vision
Patricia Hill Collins:
- is a social theorist who research, scholarship, and activism have examined intersecting power
relations of race, gender, social class, sexuality and/or nation.
- was elected in 2007 as the 100th President of The American Sociological Association.
-First African American woman this position in the ASA.
Power Relations:
- Who is oppressed in our society and by whom?
- How are power relations identified in today’s world?
Oppression is full of contradictions!
- There is the need for new thoughts and paradigms to make sense of power relations in today’s
“I am more oppressed than you
- This is an easy mistake confined to narrow definitions of race, class, gender…and not to see that
these categories intersect and obscure the understanding of oppression.
New thinking! New Acting!
- “…new ways of thinking that are not accompanied by new ways of acting offer incomplete
prospects for change.
- The “easy” understanding of human relations and understanding of each other cuts through
labels that “simplify” the task of truly getting to know each other.
- “…change starts with self and relationships that we have with those around us must always be
the primary site for social change.”
First challenge!
1. How can we reconceptualize race, class, and gender…?
Second Challenge
2. How can we transcend the barriers created by our own experiences…?
Pay attention to words/actions!
- So easy to act triggered by emotions (fear, anger, frustration, etc.)

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- So easy to follow common and long standing beliefs about people (poor/rich/middle class
people; Latin/Asian/black/white/native people.
- It is so easy to blame “the other”!
- Or to blame society- we are society!
Additive analyses of oppression (either/or)
- Based on two assumptions:
1. Dichotomous thinking: either this or that
2. Ranking of the dichotomous thinking (one group is always dominant/ the other
always subordinate).
Dimensions of Gender Oppression
1. Institutional Dimension of Oppression
2. The symbolic
3. The individual
1. Institutional Dimension of Oppression
- The institutional (schools, businesses, hospitals, workplace, and government agencies).
Challenge: What was slavery?
- Was it a racist institution?
- Or a class institution?
- Or a gender institution?
2. Symbolic Dimension of Oppression
- Feminine
o Passive
o Follower
o Emotional
o Weak
o Physical
- Masculine
o Aggressive
o Leader
o Rational
o Strong
o Intellectual
- These traits are not all inclusive set of traits, perhaps it fits mainly to “Elite White Men”.
- How do these categories of traits apply for certain groups of people? For instance, if a Latin or
black man were to be aggressive, most probably be perceived as dangerous not powerful as the
list may suggest.

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- One way to dehumanize a group is by denying the reality of their experiences
o If you don’t fit what I think women should look/behave, you are not fully a women.
o The role of dehumanizing in the army in order to kill the enemy.
3. Individual Dimension of Oppression
- Who are you close friends? Do they look like you?
- How have the conditions under which you were born shaped you as a person?
- The creation of our “normalcy” is rooted in our personal experiences. What we consider
“normal” has its foundation in our personal interactions .
- “oppression can only survive through silence”
Towards a New Vision 2- Race, Class, and Gender
New Ideas= Resistance!
- Power and how it is distributed in society. Why does it matter?
- Our main challenge would be your resistance to long standing beliefs that our lives are way
outside our control. Things are the way they are because that’s the way it is.
- We will challenge ideas about health:
o What is the main reason for people’s poor health?
o Who is healthy: big people are unhealthy (and lazy) whereas skinny people are healthy.
Is that so?
- Purpose of the kinesiology course
o To introduce and discuss the concept of socially constructed bodies (healthy, athletic,
and everyday bodies) as negotiate within many powers at play.
o How are our bodies defined and for what purpose?
o Picture of two women kissing at the Olympics
The concept of this picture is controversial. Some will disagree based on
personal experience, religious beliefs, and cultural teachings. We are asked to
ponder the new concepts. Understanding the roots of long standing beliefs. And
analyse facts that are given.
Two Ideas:
- Antonio Gramsci wrote about how power as ideological ideas that make people (especially
those without power) believe that their interest are the same than those with power
(hegemony). He explained it as a common sensical leadership in which those without power
would not question those without power would not question those with power or at least would
not overthrow them from power.
- Gramsci, Hegemony and titanic
- Power/privilege
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