Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
York (10,000)
KINE 1000 (100)
Midterm

KINE 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Robert Sapolsky, Stria Terminalis


Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 1000
Professor
Parissa Safai
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
Martina Alaimo. 211494846. KINE 1000. Section B. Tutorial 4.
KINE1000: Demystifying Kinesiology Chapter Notes
Sex, Gender and Sexuality –
Testosterone Rules By: Robert Sapolsky
-We all believe in stereotypes about minorities
oAre usually false but have a bit of truth to them
-Males are a minority that are accredited to participating in behaviours that are frowned on
by society
oLess than 50% of the population generates the most violence
oBecause of testosterone being turned out into the bloodstream by the testes?
What makes men, men (deep voices, more muscle and hair, etc.)
-Genes decide how much testosterone and estrogen is produced, how quickly, how
effectively
oSince genes regulate how much testosterone is produced and testosterone affects
aggression, genes should be able to tell us a lot about a person’s behavior
But they don’t
-Evidence says men have more testosterone and are more aggressive than females
oAggression seems to peak at times when testosterone levels peak (during puberty
and times of mating)
oIn experiments when testosterone was removed completely (castration) or given
in extreme amounts, aggression levels fell or rose accordingly
However, extremes like this are not realistic in natural life
Would assume that in regular life, more aggressive males have higher
levels of testosterone
Evidence has shown that this is not the case
-Three possibilities about the correlation between testosterone and aggression:
1. The two are unrelated
2. Increased testosterone causes increased aggression
3. Increased aggression causes more testosterone to be secreted
Real correlation
Evidence has shown that the behaviour affects the hormone
Scientists took a while to accept this
-The brain cannot distinguish between 20% the amount of normal testosterone and twice
the amount
oLess than this, less aggression
oMore than this, increased aggression
oTherefore in between a natural norm, aggression is not affected by testosterone
-As seen with the injection of testosterone into the monkey, testosterone does not create
aggression but exaggerates something that is already there
oMonkey is only aggressive towards those lower than it on the dominance
hierarchy
-Amygdala in the brain communicates aggression to the hypothalamus via the stria
terminalis though bursts of electrical excitation
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version