KINE 1020 Study Guide - Final Guide: Congenital Heart Defect, Coronary Artery Disease, Rheumatic Fever

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course
KINE 1020
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
CVD: is a term used for diseases affecting the circulatory system including the heart and blood
vessels. Whether the blood vessels are affecting the lungs, brain, kidney or other organs this is
still a CVD.
The most costly disease in 2000 was musculoskeletal diseases, then cardiovascular diseases,
then neuropsychiatric conditions. CVD has a cost of 7.6 billion for direct cost (physicians, drugs)
and 14.1 billion for indirect cost (disability, mortality). Neuropsychiatric conditions had the most
costly direct cost (diagnostic cost).
Even though the amount of death from CVD has decreased over time, still there is a huge
amount of death. CVD constitutes of 27% of the leading causes to death (including heart disease
and stroke). However, the # 1 leading cause to death is cancer and it is 29.6%.
There is a variation with CV death between Canadian provinces. This mostly depends on the
laziness of the people in the province. Also, there is a variation of CVD death with age and sex.
More men die from CV until the age of 85 and then more women die from CVD than men. This
difference is because there are more women by the age of 85 than men, to die. Also, because of
the introduction of lipid lowering medication which works better for men.
Due to the good health standards in Canada the Canadian life expectancy at age 65 is higher
than their life expectancy at birth. Keeping in mind that even though both sexes has increased
life expectancy, females still live longer.
- In the red part there is more oxygen then CO2 and in the blue is the opposite. Note where the left and
right atriums are & where the right and left ventricles are.
- Remember arteries & aorta move blood away from the heart, while veins and & vena cava move blood
to the heart.
- Two ways to measure oxygen consumption: 1- External respiration: measure O2 consumption at lungs
2- Internal respiration: measure O2 consumption at organ.
ECG: measures the
electric activity
necessary to get the
cardiac muscles to
contract.
-Measures heart
effectiveness by the
amount of heart
proteins in blood,
the more proteins
in blood the worse.
Belcastro
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The higher the VO2 in a person there is a lower chance of them getting CVD. However, VO2
capacity lowers the risk of CVD in men more than women. Women with VO2 below 35ml/kg.min
have 5 times higher risk of CVD. However, Men with VO2 below 44 ml/kg.min have 8 times
higher risk of a CVD. Thus, lower than average VO2 (oxygen uptake) has a significant risk of
developing CVD.
Depolarization=making the potential less
negative=contracting.
PQ or P=atrium contraction
QR or PR=time for negative potential to get to ventricle
QRS=ventricle contracting
ST=time for ventricle to empty blood
T=ventricle negatively charging
TP=ventricle relaxing and blood filling to atrium
Abnormalities in rate
include
Tachycardia.
Abnormalities in
rhythm include
Extrasystole,
Ventricular
fibrillation, Complete
heart block.
Cardiac Myopathies
include Myocardial
infarction (heart
attack).
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Types of cardiovascular diseases
-refers to problems
with blood supply of
O2 and nutrients to
heart thru coronary ar
-A complete blockage
of coronary arteries
causes necrosis
(damaged tissues) or
heart attack.
-partial blockage
causes Ischemia (lack
of O2). Symptoms
include angina (chest
pain) and dyspnea
(shortness of breath).
-when the heart pumping is weak, so it
can’t provide enough blood to the rest
of the body as needed. (Not all blood is
pumped out).
-This happens because of heart muscle
disease (Cardiomyopathy
[enlargement of heart, squeezed
valves, bigger ventricles]) or alcohol
consumption or weak heart due to
heart attacks.
-symptoms are shortness of breath and
legs swelling.
-affects circulation of
blood supply to the
legs.
-Symptoms include
pain in calves when
walking.
-caused by
bacterial infection
affecting heart
valves as a child
and then appears
years later.
Affects valves
opening/ closing
-to cure valves
have to be
surgically
replaced.
-Congenital=disease
a person is born with.
- refers to a problem
with the heart
structure a person is
born with.
-the cause is holes
the in heart.
-lead to death unless
an immediate
surgery is done.
Ischemic (heart)
Cerebro (Stroke)
PVD (Peripheral)
Rheumatic heart disease
Heart failure
Congenital heart
Types of the 6 CVD (associated with loss of
function/control of the cardiovascular system).
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Document Summary

Cvd: is a term used for diseases affecting the circulatory system including the heart and blood vessels. Whether the blood vessels are affecting the lungs, brain, kidney or other organs this is still a cvd. The most costly disease in 2000 was musculoskeletal diseases, then cardiovascular diseases, then neuropsychiatric conditions. Cvd has a cost of 7. 6 billion for direct cost (physicians, drugs) and 14. 1 billion for indirect cost (disability, mortality). Neuropsychiatric conditions had the most costly direct cost (diagnostic cost). Even though the amount of death from cvd has decreased over time, still there is a huge amount of death. Cvd constitutes of 27% of the leading causes to death (including heart disease and stroke). However, the # 1 leading cause to death is cancer and it is 29. 6%. There is a variation with cv death between canadian provinces. This mostly depends on the laziness of the people in the province.

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