KINE 1020 Study Guide - Final Guide: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery, Pulmonary Hypertension, Vo2 Max
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Cardiorespiratory Physiology Notes
Respiratory zone (where gas exchange occurs) : alveoli (epithelial cells of alveoli)
Conductive zone (warms and moistens air): mouth, nose, trachea, larynx, bronchus,
Inspiration: external intercostals contract/relax?, rib cage moves up, diaphragm moves
Expiration: internal intercostals contract/relax?, rib cage moves down, diaphragm moves
Tidal volume: amount of air breathed in or out under normal resting conditions.
Inspiratory reserve volume: amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal
Expiratory reserve volume: amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal
Residual volume: the amount left in lungs after expiratory reserve volume is out. This air
that’s left is what stops the lungs from collapsing.
Total lung capacity = TV + IRV + ERV + RV. All the air in the lungs.
Vital capacity: amount of air that can be exhaled after a max inspiratory effort.
Inspiratory capacity: amount of air that can be inspired after normal expiration.
Functional residual capacity: what’s left in the lungs after normal expiration
Minute ventilation: breaths/min x tidal volume
P wave: activation of atria
QRS wave: activation of ventricles
T wave: recovery
Cardiac Output = heart rate x stroke volume
Arteries carry blood away from the heart
Veins carry blood towards the heart
Dead air space and gas exchange?
Oxygen is carried in the hemoglobin (carries 4 O2 molecules at a time)
Oxygen unattaches from hemoglobin based on the concentration gradient. High
concentration of oxygen in blood travels to low concentration in muscles.
An increased heart rate means faster blood flow so less time for oxygen to get off and
A short transit time is desirable for elite athletes.
Q (oxygen deliver) = heart rate X stroke volume
Fick’s Equation: VO2 = Q x (CaO2 – CvO2)
Stroke volume (amount of blood pumped per beat) increases with exercise.
This increases VO2.
O2 carrier free space is a barrier to diffusion. Greater O2 carrier free space = less oxygen
delivered to muscles. (I think?)
How to increase VO2: deliver more oxygen AND extract a greater proportion of it
The heart pumping more blood per minute (stroke volume) would increase VO2.
What increases VO2: higher stroke volume (more oxygen delivered), delivering more
oxygen, and a greater proportion of oxygen extracted.
Q, Stroke volume and blood volume limit maximal exercise.
Anaerobic system: does not produce lactate, uses ATP and creatine kinase
Oxidative/Glycolytic system: lactic acid is produced, ETC, krebs cycle.
Plateau in VO2 indicates that VO2 max has been reached.
Respiratory Exchange Ratio
RER = VCO2 (expired) /VO2 (consumed)
If 0.7, fat is the main energy source used. Lower number = fat used
If 1.0, carbs is the main energy used. Higher number = carbs used
Respiratory quotient (RQ) is theoretical because it stops at 1.0 whereas RER can go
above that due to bicarbonate and CO2 being produced.
RER increases with exercise since more CO2 is produced when lactic acid is buffered by
bicarbonate when exercise becomes intense after a long time.
T Vent is the point at which the ventilation increases disproportionately to the oxygen
uptake. High amount of CO2 in blood causes you to breath at a faster right
Above the T vent, there was very high lactate levels in blood which causes the person to
slow down and stop. Higher % T vent is better.
Lactate can be converted into glucose using the liver, but too much increases pH of blood
and lowers enzyme activity causing you to slow down.
Bicarbonate from the kidneys is used to buffer lactic acid and lower pH. This produces
Aerobic activities: rhythmical, continuous, uses large muscle groups.
3-5 days of exercise per week is necessary to increase VO2. Good time is 20-60 minutes.
VO2 max can only be improved by 20-25%.
High intensity, high frequency, long duration exercise causes the greatest increase in
Adipose tissue is the most abundant energy source.
Long aerobic exercises uses the most glycogen, short intense exercise uses very little
glycogen since it uses mainly ATP and PCr.
It is beneficial to carb-load for events longer than 90 minutes. No benefit if less than that.
Disadvantages: extra water weight, bloating.
Carb-loading delays fatigue by 20%
Improves times to go a certain distance by 2-3%
Classic carb loading: eat little or no carbs for a few days (gradually decrease the amount
of exercise), which causes muscle glycogen levels to be depleted. Then eat a lot of carbs
to saturate muscles with glycogen (more than before).
Carb loading encourages body to use more glycogen rather than fat or glucose.
500g of carbs is recommended after exercise.