Exam review An exam review I used and created for last years exam

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
Course
Professor
Kinesiology 1020 Exam Review
Physical Activity Fitness & Health
- The leading cause of death in Canadians is cardiovascular disease
- Blood pressures that do qualify as hypertension is: 120/95 mmHg
145/95 mmHg
140/80 mmHg
- Women who exercise for 1-3 hr/wk have 30% lower incidence of breast cancer, over 4
hours/week have up to 75% lower incidence of breast cancer
- acute effects of physical activity on health risk differ with regards to what you are trying
to improve
- when working with obese clients, physical activity is beneficial with or without weight
loss
- A cerebral aneurysm is a weak or thin spot on a blood vessel in the brain that balloons
out and fills with blood
- most aneurysm’s don’t show any symptoms
- larger aneurysm’s may press on tissues & nerves
Diagnosis for an aneurysm:
- computed tomography angiography (CTA)
- angiogram
- magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA)
Criminal Code of Canada, 2004
- Legislates that supervisors and management personnel will be deemed criminally
negligent if they do not ensure their employees met the requirements to do their job safe
& effectively
- undo hardship: when accommodating the needs of the individual would out weigh the
benefits, and cause problems that are costly and would effect the job requirements
Disease
Malaria- is caused by a parasite (protozoa) called plasmodium, which is transmitted via
the bites of infected mosquitoes
- parasites spread disease
- Prions: are a protein, mad cow disease (Bovine spongiform encephalopathy), death
usually occurs within 3-12 months from onset of symptoms
- Chain of infection: Pathogen- Reservoir- Portal of exit- means of transmission- portal of
entry- new host
Immune system: Lymphatic system (born with innate immunity)- vessels/glands that pick
up fluid, protein, lipids, contain white blood cells which trap & destroy & filter pathogens
- Acquired immune system- recognises antigen, gets better as you get older
Inflammatory Response
- Histamine (swelling)= more blood supply
- Heat
- Swelling
- Redness
- Macrophages & Neutrophils
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- Pus
T-Cells:
- have receptors that bind to specific antigens
- when activation occurs T-Cells can become either T-helper cells or killer T-Cells
- part of the lymphocyte family along with B-Cells
- characterized by shape
B-Cells:
- upon stimulation with antigen, become antibody secreting plasma cells
- characterized by shape
Symptoms and Contamination:
Incubation:
- viruses/bacteria are multiplying
- no symptoms usually but may by contagious
Prodromal Period:
- feel some symptoms
- symptoms related to immune response
Clinical Period:
- recovery period, still infectious but immune system has taken over
Immunization:
- primes immune system for future pathogens
- immune system can then quickly produce antibodies to organism
Exercise and Immune System:
- individuals who do moderate exercise have a lower chance of infection risk,
while high intensity/prolonged or sedentary exercise immune strength is
lower then with moderate exercise
- with high intensity/prolonged exercise your cortical levels increase which
suppress the immune system
HIV Infection:
- progressive destruction of the immune system
- leads to a progressive release of infectious particles, immune system become
overwhelmed
- Currently no cure
- HAART- highly active anti-retroviral therapy which is a combination therapy
most effective
Heart Disease
- cardiovascular disease is the number one killer in both men and women, in the younger
ages (under 65) more prevalent in men and 65 and above prevalent in both genders
- preventing heart disease: physical activity & diet
The Silent Killers: hypertension (blood pressure)
Systolic- under 120 > good blood pressure (low)
Diastolic- under 80
- turbulent blood flow damages arteries
- Lipoprotein profile: total cholesterol = LDL + HDL
LDL = trans/saturated fat (bad)
HDL = unsaturated fat (good because it has more protein)
2 types: cholesterol-rich & triglyceride-rich
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- your body makes ¾ of the cholesterol, your diet only makes about ¼ of your bodies
cholesterol
LDL and Atherosclerosis:
- plaque develops in the wall of an artery causing them to harden and narrower for blood
to pass through
- if you go to the hospital with a potential heart attack the doctor will perform an ECG
(electrocardiogram), stress tests, and ST- Segment Depression
Post Myocardial Infarction: (after heart attack)
- Hyper acute phase
- Fully evolved phase
- Resolution phase
- Stabilization phase
Angiography: uses dye & x-rays to show the insides of your coronary arteries, a long,
thin, flexible tube (catheter)
Angioplasty: a balloon type instrument which is used to widen an artery
- also a stent (wire mesh tube) may be placed in this blocked area the stent is inserted
with the balloon catheter, stent is left there to hold artery open
Coronary Graft Bypass:
- a vein is taken from either the leg or part of the mammary artery is taken from your
body and is attached to the blocked/clogged artery in the heart, it is used to bypass the
blockage and connects to the artery
Different Surgeries: minimally (Mid Cab) invasive coronary bypass surgery, TECAB
surgery (totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass)
Protein & Exercise
- recommended daily allowance of protein for healthy adults is 0.8 g/kg body weight per
day
- although if you are physically active you need to increase it to 1.4-2.0 g/kg/day
- muscle protein balance= rate of synthesis - rate of breakdown
- both muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown increase with exercise
- if you intake protein and exercise you will better increase protein synthesis, especially if
you eat protein (amino acid) just before exercise
- increasing the concentration & availability of amino acids in the blood increases in lean
tissue with resistance training, any of the essential amino acids are beneficial for this
Exercise & Heat
-Thermal equilibrium: when heat transfers from the hottest object to the cooler one until
both temperatures become equal
- in humans we only reach thermal equilibrium in our bodies at death
- sweat needs to be evaporated to reduce your heat when exercising
- exertional heat stroke: collapse during exercise when rectal temperature is >40 degrees
Celsius + central nervous system changes
FITT Principle (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type)
- train recommended 3-5 times per week, 150 minutes per week
- to induce an effect training intensity should be 45-80% of heart rate reserve
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Document Summary

The leading cause of death in canadians is cardiovascular disease. Blood pressures that do qualify as hypertension is: 120/95 mmhg. Women who exercise for 1-3 hr/wk have 30% lower incidence of breast cancer, over 4 hours/week have up to 75% lower incidence of breast cancer. Acute effects of physical activity on health risk differ with regards to what you are trying to improve. When working with obese clients, physical activity is beneficial with or without weight loss. Legislates that supervisors and management personnel will be deemed criminally negligent if they do not ensure their employees met the requirements to do their job safe. Undo hardship: when accommodating the needs of the individual would out weigh the benefits, and cause problems that are costly and would effect the job requirements. Malaria- is caused by a parasite (protozoa) called plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes.

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