KINE 1020 Study Guide - Final Guide: Varity, Skeletal Muscle, Body Composition

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Lecture 4 :
Musculoskeletal (MSK)
Dr. Angelo Belcastro:
major area that can be
identified as the
necessities or
importance in regards
to skeletal muscle
health:
- Functionality
- Energy expenditure
- Muscle becomes a
metabolic engine for
the rest of the body.
Muscle functionality is
different in infants than
in toddlers
With elder’s activity of
daily living can be:
- Getting up from a chair
- Walking to the kitchen
- Putting something on the table
one of the important contributions to energy expenditure:
- Overall energy balance; provides energy from Varity of different sources, different
nutrients will contribute to that chemical energy that is needed to powering the movement
and do the things we like to do
If you have different substrates; being metabolized or providing the necessary energy is
disproportionate amounts, then that might contribute to some disruptions in the metabolic
system.
- High level of fat as an energy source that will lead to heart diseases, cardiometabolic
disease.
- Too much cards will result in a metabolic disorder relating to diabetes.
Implications of unhealth; not only are the muscle function related or metabolic related. They are
also behavioural attributes related.
Slide notes:
Examples of importance of energy expenditure or the “metabolic engine”
Healthy muscles are required for increased energy expenditure and associated impact on:
Body composition
- Increasing muscle mass ( FFM; LM) results in relatively lower fat mass- body tone
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- Delay of the loss of muscle mass with aging
- Retard osteoporosis
CVD and metabolic disease ( Diabetes)
- Improve glucose metabolism
- Reduce blood pressure
- Increased HDL and lowering LDL
There is a strong inter-relationship,
reciprocal relationship between
functionality and energy expenditure.
To understand the reciprocal factors, you
have to think about what is it that the
muscle actually done?
- Muscle contraction
- Outcomes of somebody contracting
muscle.
Outputs of muscle:
- Force
- Power
- Speed and velocity
We need to have the metabolic energy that will help us fuel those outputs.
“ we are wearing out genes”
- Over evolution, the relationship between both of them they were very strong
Back then, the activity of daily living was hunting and gathering.
- The functionality of going out and coming back and then having the food sources,
required that the food that was taken in was not immediately used up, it was stored as fat
and later used as energy.
- “Eat. Store. Work hard.”
Today in this technological time we lost the hard piece of
- Walking up and doing things
- Going out and coming back
We don’t use all the fats stored up therefor it has impacted the way we do things and our quality
of life.
The next generation will not have a high life expectancy anymore.
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Skeletal muscle: focused primarily
Functioning properly will limit the movement
You don’t want to limit the movement of your heart, vasiture, and skeletal muscle
1. Striated
2. Voluntary
3. 600 skeletal muscles
Skeletal mass also dictates what outputs we get from muscle.
- Larger skeletal mass = more force = more power
There are also small muscles that do things
Relationship types of skeletal muscles actions (contractions) and functions or outputs
Static:
- Isometric contractions- great force but no movement
- But sometimes it needs movement
Dynamic:
- Shortening contractions- greater the fore (external load) the slower the velocity
- Lengthening contractions- the greater the force (or external load) stretching a muscle the
greater the velocity.
- Correlation coefficience 0.35
Isometric and the forces required for other types of movement does not have a strong
relationship
A variety of skeletal muscle outputs or functions are necessary to support functionality and
energy expenditure
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