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KINE 2011 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Endoplasmic Reticulum, Exocrine Gland, Secretion

Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 2011
Gillian Wu
Study Guide

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Chapter 1
1. Muscle Tissue
- skeletal muscle: moves the skeleton
- cardiac muscle: pumps blood out of the heart
- smooth muscle: encloses and controls movements of contents through hollow
tubes and organs, such as the movement of food through the digestive tract
2. Nervous Tissue
- Consists of cells specialized for initiating and transmitting electrical impulses
- Sometimes over long distances
- Signals information from one part of the body to another
- Found in the brain, spinal cord and nerves
3. Epithelial Tissue
- Consists of cells specialized for exchanging materials between the cell and its
- ANY substance that enters of leaves the body must cross an epithelial barrier
- 2 general types of structures: epithelial sheets and secretory glands
- Join very tightly to form sheets of tissue that cover and line various parts of
the body (i.e. outer layer of the skin & lining of the digestive tract)
- Epithelial sheets serve as boundaries that separate the body from the external
environment and from the contents of cavities that open to the external
environment, i.e. the digestive tract lumen
- A lumen is a cavity within a hallow organ or tube
- Epithelial barriers allow selective transfer of materials
4. Glands
- Epithelial tissue derivatives specialized for secreting
- Secretion is the release from a cell, in response to appropriate stimulation, of
specific products that have been produced by the cell
- Formed during embryonic development by pockets of epithelial tissue that dip
inward from the surface and develop secretory capabilities
- Two categories: exocrine and endocrine
- If, during development, the connecting cells between the epithelial surface
cells and the secretory gland cells within the depths of the invagination remain
intact as a duct between the gland the surface, an exocrine gland is formed. If
the connect cells disappear during development and the secretory gland cells
are isolated from the surface, an endocrine gland is formed.

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- Exocrine glands secrete through ducts to the outside of the body (exo means
external; crine means secretion). Sweat glands and glands that secrete
digestive juices are examples
- Endocrine glands lack ducts and release their secretory products known as
hormones internally into the blood (endo means internal). For example the
pancreas secretes insulin into the blood which transports this hormone.
5. Connective tissue
- Relatively few cells dispersed within an abundance of extracellular material
- Connective tissue connects, supports, and anchors various body parts
- Includes loose connective tissue that attaches epithelial tissue to underlying
structures; tendons, which attach skeletal muscles to bones; bone, which gives
the body shape, support and protection; and blood, which transports materials
from one part of the body to another
- Other than blood, cells of connective tissue produce specific structural
molecules that they release into the extracellular spaces between the cells. For
example, the rubber-band like protein fibre elastin, whose presence facilitates
the stretching and recoiling of structures, such as the lungs, which inflate and
deflate during breathing.
Tissue: to mean the aggression of various cellular and extracellular components that
makes up a particular organ (i.e. lung tissue or liver tissue).
Body system level are a collection of organs that perform related functions and interact
to accomplish a common activity that is essential for survival of the whole body. For
example, the digestive system consists of the mouth, salivary glands, pharynx (throat),
esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and large intestine.
- Human body has 11 systems: circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urinary, skeletal,
muscular, integumentary, immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive
- The key is the presence of a watery internal environment with which the body
cells are in direct contact and make life-sustaining exchanges.
Body Cells
- Intracellular fluid (ICF) is the fluid with all body cells
- Extracellular fluid (ECF) is the fluid outside the cells; this is the internal
environment of the body, the fluid environment in which the cells live.
- ECF is made up of two components: plasma (fluid portion of the blood) and
interstitial fluid (surrounds and bathes the cell)

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Body systems the body cells can live and function only when the extracellular fluid is
compatible with their survival; thus, the chemical composition and physical state of this
internal environment must be maintained within narrow limits. For example, as cells take
up nutrients and oxygen from the internal environment, these essential materials must
constantly be replenished.
Homeostasis is essential for survival of each cell, and each cell, through its specialized
activities, contributes as part of a body system to the maintenance of the internal
environment shared by all cells.
Cells make up body systems, body systems maintain homeostasis which is essential for
survival of all cells.
(See page 10)
1. Concentration of nutrient molecules
2. Concentration of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide
3. Concentration of waste products
4. pH
5. Concentration of water, salt and other electrolytes
6. Volume and pressure
7. Temperature
1. The circulatory system
- Transports materials such as nutrients, oxygen and co2, wastes, electrolytes
and hormones from one part of the body to another.
- Also helps with thermoregulation by moving heat to the periphery from the
2. The digestive system
- Breaks down dietary food into small nutrient molecules that can be absorbed
into the plasma for distribution to the body cells
- Transfers water and electrolytes from the external environment into the
internal environment
- Eliminates undigested food residues to the external environment in the feces
3. The respiratory system
- Consists of the lungs and major airways
- Receives O2 and eliminates CO2 from the external environment
- By adjusting the rate of removal of acid-forming CO2, the respiratory system
is also important in maintaining the proper pH of the internal environment
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