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KINE 2031 Study Guide - Final Guide: Blood Vessel, Epicondyle, Lymphatic System


Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 2031
Professor
Neil Smith
Study Guide
Final

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9Nervous system
Function: sensory input (sensory receptors throughout the body which detect external and internal
change), Integration (processes sensory input and decides if response required), Motor output (if
response required, the nervous system sends motor messages to respond to stimulus)
Organization:
Central Nervous System (Brain + Spinal cord), neurons in CNS: Sensory, Motor, Interneuron
(Connectors) integration component, decision making center *
Peripheral Nervous System (cranial nerves + spinal nerves+ Ganglia), divided into two types of neurons:
Sensory (Afferent) and Motor (Efferent) relaying signals *
Sensory: receives information from receptors and transmits the information to Central nervous system,
divided into: Somatic Sensory (of the body, e.g. touch, pain, pressure) and Visceral sensory (internal
organs, e.g. blood vessels, digestive organs, respiratory organs)
Side note: visceral sensory system does not reach conscious until the visceral sensory signals are strong
enough (eating heavily stretches stomach and causes pain and reached conscious)
Motor: transmits motor impulses from Central nervous system to muscles or glands (Effectors), divided
into: Somatic Motor (of the body, Voluntary e.g. conscious contraction of striated or skeletal muscles)
and Visceral or Autonomic Motor (organs, Involuntary, unconscious contraction of smooth muscle,
cardiac muscle or glands)
Visceral or Autonomic divided into: Sympathetic (fight or flight) and Parasympathetic (controls mostly
at rest) * remember these are still involuntary, all internal things that determine how you act when you
see a tiger
Functional Unit: Neuron
Structure of Neuron: Cell body (contain things you see in a cell), Dendrites (extension of cytoplasm that
is responsible for directing information TOWARDS the cell body), Axon (extension of cytoplasm
responsible for directing information AWAY from cell body)
*myelin insulate axon and allow signal to travel faster because signal can skip, some axons don’t have
myelin because signals do not need to be very fast*
Non-Nervous Cells: Neuroglia Cells in the CNS
Astrocytes: act as blood-to-brain barrier (positioned between capillary and neuron), act to regulate
what substances come in contact with the neuron, act like glue in CNS, giving structural support
Oligodendrocytes: cells responsible for production of Myelin around axon in CNS , Myelin is fat coating
around axon that helps insulate axon (white in colour), myelinated axon are said to be “white matter” of
the CNS

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Microglial cells: destroy viruses and bacteria which have entered the CNS (Act much like the Lymphatic
system and what it does for the body)
Ependymal Cells: cells that line ventricles of the brain, these cells along with capillary networks (Choroid
Plexi) are responsible for the formation of Cerebrospinal Fluid
Non-Nervous Cells: Peripheral nervous system
Schwann (Neurolemmocytes) Cells: responsible for formation of myelin around axons in peripheral
nervous system
Satellite Cells: responsible for surrounding and separating cell bodies in ganglia, important in the
regulation of exchange of nutrients and wastes between the neuron and their surrounding environment
The Brain
Forebrain
Components: Cerebrum, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Basal Ganglia
Cerebrum: Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital Lobes
Cortex (Gray matter (non myelinated), convoluted or folded) of cerebrum divided into Gyri (hills) and
Sulci (valleys), sulci divide the cortex into lobes
Longitudinal sulcus (fissures): deep sulcus, divided brain into right and left hemispheres
Central sulcus: divides frontal from parietal, Anterior to the sulcus we have pre-central gyrus(motor
control part) and posterior to the sulcus we have post-central gyrus (sensory component of brain)
Lateral sulcus: divides temporal lobe from everything else
Parietal-Occipital sulcus: divides occipital lobes from everything anterior to it
Open the brain: you see Thalamus (pass sensory signals to the Cerebrum- relay center) and
Hypothalamus (controls Autonomic nervous system, the motor visceral system (of glands which
produce hormones and organs)
Basal Ganglia: exist laterally to the thalamus (only 1 thalamus), they relay motor signal away from the
cerebrum
*What we have in gray matter is cell bodies (since they are not mylineated), and white matter is
myleinated axons
Commissural Tracts: myelinated axon that joins the right to left hemisphere, information can be
connected on either side (Stay inside brain)

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Projection tracts: bring information up to the cerebrum and away from cerebrum (leave brain and come
back to brain)
Association Tracts: connecting gyri within same hemisphere, divided into Arcuate fibres: connect gyri
within the same lobe, longitudinal fibres: connect gyri to different lobes in same hemisphere
The Brainstem: Midbrain + Hindbrain, Thalamus (forebrain)
Midbrain
Responsible for things like eye movement, cranial nerves innervate muscles of eyes, and visual and
auditory reflex centers (e.g. When you hear a loud sound you turn left or right)
Cerebral peduncle: connecting our midbrain up to the forebrain and cerebrum
Superior cerebellar peduncle: brings motor signals from cerebellum to the midbrain so they can be sent
out to wherever they have to go
Hindbrain
Pons: regulate breathing; give rise to cranial nerves 5-8, you have middle cerebellar peduncle: motor
signal from cerebrum
Medulla Oblongata: gets inferior cerebellar peduncle: motor signal from cerebrum, rise to cranial
nerves 8-12, and regulates Heart Rate, blood pressure, and breathing
Cerebellum: right at back below cerebrum, has a convoluted cortex layer, divided into left and right
hemisphere (Vermis divides the two hemisphere), The white matter form a tree (Arbor Vitae).
Coordinates all motor movement in body
Meninges
Three layers that protect outside of brain (Dura mater, Arachnoid, Pia Mater)
Dura Mater (thickest layer, physical protection, in the brain 2 layers or dura mater and spinal cord only
1, the 2 layers will split and join on the interior of the brain forming a blue area called Venous sinus
(cleaning deoxygenated blood out of brain) Dura mater also create Dural folds
Dural Folds
Falx cerebri: splits the two cerebral hemispheres (Right and left)
Falx Cerebelli: splits the two hemispheres between cerebellum (below the Tentorium cerebelli)
Tontorium cerebelli: on both sides, tent over cerebellum, inferior to cerebrum and superior to
cerebellum
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