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KINE 2031 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Bt Group, Adenosine Triphosphate, Wireless Access Point


Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 2031
Professor
Neil Smith
Study Guide
Final

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KINE 2031

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Respiratory System
Respiratory system includes respiratory airways leading into the lungs, lungs &
structures of thorax (chest) involved in producing movement of air through
airways into and out of lungs
Respiratory airways are tubes that carry air b/t atmosphere and air sacs.
Nasal (nose)  pharynx (throat)  larynx  trachea (windpipe)  bronchi 
bronchioles  alveoli
Nasal  pharynx  oesophagus
Internal/ Cellular Respiration: Metabolic reactions in human cells to produce
biochemical energy. Energy made is stored as ATP. Derive ATP using O2, food &
producing CO2 as by-product
External Respiration: sequence of gas exchange b.t external environment & cells
of body. 4 Steps:
1. Ventilation or gas exchange b/t atmosphere & air sacs (alveoli) in lungs
2. Exchanges of O2 & CO2 b/t air in alveoli & blood in pulmonary capillaries
3. Transport of O2 & CO2 by blood b/t lungs & tissues
4. Exchange of O2 & CO2 b/t blood in systematic capillaries & tissues
Lungs
-No muscle is present in walls of bronchioles
-Changes in lung volume are brought by changes in thoracic cavity
-Outer chest wall is thorax
-Diaphragm is a skeletal muscle & is innervated by autonomic nervous
system. Diaphragm separates thoracic cavity (chest), containing heart &
lungs, from abdominal cavity & performs functions in respiration:
diaphragm contracts, volume of thoracic cavity increases & air is drawn into
lungs
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Gas Exchange
-Breathing provides supply of O2 for pickup by blood & CO2 unloads from
blood to be removed
-Blood acts as transport system for O2 & CO2 b/t lungs & tissues, with tissue
cells extracting O2 from blood & eliminating CO2 into it
-Gas exchange at pulmonary & systematic levels involves passive diffusion of
O2 & CO2 down partial pressure gradients
Pulmonary Circulation Gas Exchange
-Pulmonary arterioles carry deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs.
-Pulmonary venules carry oxygenated blood from lungs to heart
System Circulation Gas Exchange
-Systematic arteries carry oxygenated blood from heart to tissue cells
-Systematic veins carry deoxygenated blood from tissue cells to heart
Functions of Respiratory System
1. Inhalations & Exhalations are Pulmonary Ventilations – Breathing
-Changes in volume & air pressure by diaphragm contraction/relaxation
triggers pulmonary ventilations
-During inhalation: diaphragm & external intercostal muscles contract 
volume of lungs increases air pressure drops  air rushes in
-During exhalation: diaphragm relaxes volume of lung decreases  air
pressure increases  air out
2. External respirations exchanges gases b/t lungs & bloodstream
-Oxygen from inhaled air diffuses from alveoli into pulmonary capillaries. It
binds to hb molecules in RBCs & is pumped into bloodstream.
-Carbon dioxide diffuses from capillaries into alveoli & expelled through
exhalation
3. Internal respirations exchanges gases b/t bloodstream & body tissues
-Bloodstream delivers oxygen to cells & removes waste CO2
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