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Midterm 2 for growth and maturation

Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 3340
Nickolas Wattie
Study Guide

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Lecture 9: Fundamental Movement skills: Object Control Skills
Overarm Throwing
- one of the most complex fundamental movements that can be divided into 3 parts:
All movements directed away form the intended line of projection
All movements performed in the direction of the throw
Follow through
All movements following the release of the projectile
- there are many developmental changes of throwing proposed by different people
M. Wild (1983)
developed the 4 developmental stages of throwing. There is movement that
progresses from anterior/posterior plane to a horizontal one and the base of support
changes from a stationary to a shifting position
Lagendorfer (1980)
Has many options and steps:
Step 1: preparatory backswing
Step 2: ball brought up beside the head, upward forearm flexion and
exaggerated elbow flexion
Option 1: circular overhead preparatory movement with extended elbow
Option 2: has a preparatory phase using a lateral swing backward
Option 3: uses a simply vertical lift of the throwing arm
Step 4: by the 2nd grade, boys predominately use a windup baseball pitch
Roberton (1978)
Presents longitudinal evidence for development stages within the forearm, humerus,
and trunk components of an overarm throw. Says development of different
components can proceed at different rates in unique individs
Reuschlein and
Vogel (1972)
They note that there are large gender differences when it comes to throwing, There is
a lag in development for girls and 60% of boys are able to exhibit stage 5 sooner
Stages of Throwing (refer to lecture for figures)
Stage 1
Throwing becomes posterior-anterior direction
Feet don‟t move with little trunk rotation
Stage 2
More rotation is seen and the performer may step forward
The arm is brought forward in the transverse plan
Stage 3
There is ipsilateral arm-leg action
Ball placed into throwing position above the shoulder by a vertical posterior motion of
the arm at the time the ipsilateral leg is going forward
Stage 4
Movement becomes contralateral (left leg forward, right arm forward with right leg back
and right arm back)
Little to no rotation of the hips and spine
Stride forward provides BoS
Stage 5
Mature movement patterns and 60% of boys and girls are able to perform at specific
developmental level

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Developmental performance trends for overarm throwing
- there have been many techniques to measure distance, accuracy and velocity.
- there are annual improvements for all and it is always shown that boys/men outperform girls/women at all
Factors that influence overarm throwing (5)
Instruction significantly affects changes in throwing technique but not
greater horizontal ball velocities
A program that increases ROM can increase the stride length component
of an overarm throw
For women, a training program designed to improve throwing pattern is
effective in improving foot action, pelvic spine rotation but not arm
action, throwing distance and ball velocity
Those with less knowledge are more awkward when throwing, therefore
knowledge influences performance in throwing
Instructional cues
Must identify critical cues
These critical cues are: (1) take a long step toward target with opposite
foot of throwing arm (2) take your arm straight down, and stretch it back
to make an L with the arm (3) watch the target and release ball when you
see your fingers
Ball size
When the ball is too big for the thrower, thrower resorts to a less mature
throwing pattern or will use 2 hands instead of 1
Angle of ball release
Mature throwing angle is 15 deg.
Arm dominated throwing has a pattern in which the ball is released to
early at an angle of 49 def. linked with poor grasp, ball weight or size
Gender Differences in Overarm Throwing
- The GREATEST gender differences in fundamental movement skills is founded in throwing
- Success for boys in throwing relates to Heredity (arm muscle mass) or sociocultural factors like having an
adult male to teach one.
- Success for girl is associated with greater weight, more fat, larger joints, greater arm and leg masses
compared to weaker females. Best predictors for girls that will have a more developed throw are: Sport
participation and presence of an older brother in the house. For boys it is fathers involvement in sport and
father-son skill play.
Catching: The action of brining an airbourne object under control by using the hands and arms
Two-handed catching (Developmental aspects)
- first attempt at stopping a rolling ball is to sit on the floor with legs spread apart: legs trap the ball and
hands trap the ball
- first attempt at stopping an airbourne object is passive in which the child uses outstretched arms and body
to catch
2 y/o
5 y/o
15 y/o

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-Seedfeldt speculates that when a child shows fear when catching a ball, it is a result of failed past
experiences therefore learned from failure.
Developmental sequences for 2 handed catching
Stage 1
Arms are directly in front with arms extended, palms up and in
Arms and hands attempt to secure ball by pulling into chest
Stage 2
Elbows are slightly flexed and arms encircle the ball against the chest
Arm action starts before ball contact
Stage 3
Substage 1: child uses chest as first contact point
Substage 2: child attempts to catch with hands
Stage 4
Child prepares to receive the ball by flexing the elbows and presenting the arms ahead
of the frontal plane
Ball is caught with hands alone
Stage 5
Many children encounter difficulty when the are required to move toward the object
For one handed catching, there is little evidence regarding a child ability to catch with one hand but boys
outperform girls, and one hand is less successful than 2 hand. Ball location matters in which experience is a
key factor.
Striking: a fundamental movement in which a designated part or some implement is used to project an
object (bare hand on volleyball/baseball/tennis racquet)
- initial movements similar to throwing
Developmental aspects of one and two handed striking
Stage 1
Motion posterior-anterior
Elbows fully flexed and feet remain stationary
Stage 2
Feet are stationary but right or left foot may receive the weight
Unitary rotation of hip and trunk and the baseball bat moves in the transverse plane
Stage 3
Shift of the weight to the front supporting foot in an ipsilateral
Trunk rotation-derotation decreases and bat rotation is swooning in an oblique vertical
Stage 4
Mature striking pattern
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