KINE 4420 Study Guide - Final Guide: Natural Killer Cell, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cytotoxic T Cell

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Relaxation notes Final 4/11/2012 9:57:00 AM
Chapter 2
Immune System
Controlled by pituitary gland
Comprised of:
WBC, platelets
Lymphatic system
Spleen
Thymus gland
Bone marrow
Lymph has valves but no venous pressure so its based on muscle
movement
Non-specific defense mechanisms prevents penetration of its external
shield
Thickening of skin
Gastric acidity
Sweeping movement of cilia
Sneezing/coughing
Specific defense
Bone marrow produced B-lymphocytes
o B-lymphocytes produce: Immunoglobins, antibodies
o T-lymphocites are produced in bone marrow but develop in
the thymus
Thymus gland secretes hormones that influence lymphocyte
production
o Larger in children
Spleen serves as blood bank
o Acts as a large lymph node; filtering lymphatic fluid, hosting
lymphocytes and phagocytes
Lymphatic system vessels that transport lymph fluid
o Vessels lead to lymph nodes/glands
o Lymph nodes produce large amounts of lymphocytes &
phagocytes
Cell types & functions:
Macrophage
o Digest antigens, dispose of dying and damaged cells
o Remove inorganic particles
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T Lymphocyte
o Tumor killing activity
o Recognize infected cell
o Modulate antibody production by B Lymph
B Lymphocyte
o Produce antibodies that dissolve pathogens or coat them for
easier identification by macrophage
Natural Killer Cells
o Can seek and destroy tumor cells with or without additional
activation
Suppressor T Cells
o Tells other cells to stop the immune response once antigens
are destroyed
How to control immune system?
Nerve fibers from the brain
o Directly influence thymus & spleen (neural)
Hormones
o Brain stimulates pituitary gland to make hormones
o Regulate immune cell function
Neuropeptides
o Travel in blood and change activity of other cells in the
process of combating infection
no one system or organ controls immune system
If macrophage cannot eliminate antigen immunological functioning:
i. Identification of antigens “scouting”
1. Macrophage digest antigens
2. Tells other of invaders
ii. Amplification of defenses “defense strategy”
1. Macrophage secrete interleukin-1 that activate helper T
2. Helper T goes to spleen and lymph nodes to secrete
interleukin-2 which stimulates T & B cells to multiply
3. Natural Killer T cells multiply
iii. Attack “offensive strategy”
1. Macrophage attack antigens
2. T & B identify or attack
iv. Return to normal operation “game over”
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1. Macrophage tell suppressor cells to shut down T & B when
antigens are destroyed
2. Cells retain memory of invaders for future
Disregulation:
Overactivity
o Factor in autoimmune disorders such as arthritis
o Causes allergies
o Allergies
Immune system over-reacts
o Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis - Chronic inflammatory disorder
Osteoarthritis from injuries or wear and tear; with or
without immune involvement
Underactivity or Immunodeficiency
o Glucocorticoid suppress immune system; influence helper T
o Decreases the immune cells activity
o Flu, Colds, Infections
o Cancer
Carcinogenic agents, genetic predisposition, lifestyle
factors
Eysenck found relationship between distress & cancer
Acute distress: increase in pre-existing cancer growth
Chronic distress: inoculation effect that reduced tumor
growth
LSR and immune disregulation
Can prevent distress induced suppression of immune system
Imagery for remission and elimination of cancer
Psychological Concepts:
Law of initial values (LIV) physiological response depends on the initial
level of the system; the higher the level, the smaller the increase
LIV is true for muscles, vascular tone, respiratory system but NOT for
skin conductance
“ceiling” and “floor” effects: one extreme of the system cannot be
compared with an equal change in another part of the system
“lability” is the tendency of a person to respond to events
“reactivity” is the degree to which they respond
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