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KINE 4520 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Group Cohesiveness, Equatorial Guinea, Sport Psychology


Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 4520
Professor
Paul Dennis
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chapter 10, Teamwork
-Ivan Arreguin analyzed wars in the last 200 years and found that:
One side was at least 10x more powerful than the other
The stronger side won 71% of the time
When the underdog won, it was only because they substituted effort for ability as a cohesive group
-Cohesiveness= formula for success in all forms of human endeavour
- social loafing= trusting your partner to do the job, putting in less effort than if you were alone
-what makes a team? parents, athletes coaches, and support staff
-Evolution of a team= collection of individuals who identify form through:
shared sense of purpose
structured patterns of behaviour
Interaction
Communication
-Five Features of Teams (Forsyth, 2006,) diagnostic framework to see what has gone wrong
1. Interaction communication
2. Structure roles and captains
3. Cohesion: Task cohesion- playing together and bringing the best out of each other
Social Cohesion- respect, exclusiveness, tightness, away from the game
4. Goals well defined short and long term goals, all agree and believe in them
5. Identity does the team have an identity and is it reinforced by key players / how?
-you can still win if there is no cohesion!
-Team cohesion dynamic process of a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of
goals and objectives:
Task cohesion= working together to achieve an identifiable goal
-higher task cohesion is associated with perceived psychological momentum
-higher levels of it= increased efficacy, more confidence, and more efficiency
-more important than social cohesion
Social cohesion= how much members like each-other
-more important for females
-influenced by perceptions of: individual attraction (how much you like playing for the team),
and group integration (how well do you think the team functions)
-strength of perceptions determines why teams stick together
- predicts future involvement in sport
-can be measured by GEQ
-collective individualism= used in china VS. individual ambition= used in north America
-Correlates of cohesion: 1. Environmental-> group size and competition level are negative correlates
2. leadership-> coaching techniques, tell weak players they can do it
3. team-> highly successful teams are more cohesive
4. personal->individual satisfaction= more cohesion
-success breeds cohesion!
Cohesion-performance relationships are strongest when it is measured as task than social
Cohesion-performance relationships are stronger when performance is defined as behaviour rather
than outcome
-Interactive Cohesion is STRONGER than coactive cohesion
-Cohesion + 3 Steps = Success
1. Team goals must be defined clearly- players taking ownership and providing input to what goal is
2. Player expectations must be high –i.e. “I want 12 assists this game”
3. Focus on Task-related issues i.e.” this guy stole my girlfriend 2 days before the game!”

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-How to Build Cohesion? Through team building activites and strategies:
Direct Intervention-> sport psychologist takes control over team
can cause issues of respect “ you don’t look like an athlete, why should I listen to you”
Indirect Intervention- the sport psychologist teaches coaches how to conduct the team building
session
-Coaches role ->nurturing and guiding athletes to see the value of creating a cohesive team make
everyone feel a sense of ownership and commitment
-factors that increase tension: negative communication (which reduces self esteem), and focusing on
what is wrong than on what’s right
-ways to create team cohesion: improve communications, respect and celebrate differences, use
inclusive process in developing team goals, create vision of the team as greater than any individual, have
a positive feedback environment, avoid favouritism, behave respectfully to each-other, give the athlete
unconditional support, and have clear role clarifications
-building a great team: MAPS
-MISSION-> the philosophy that guides the team, values, and commitment to excellence
-it isn’t about the scoring, beating the competition, or winning
-need to set team goals, learn and value individuals’ needs, establish trust to surrender me for we
-trust= willingness to be vulnerable on the basis of positive expectations of other, based on:
Perceived ability->to accomplish a certain task
Perceived integrity-> commitment to principles
Perceived benovelance-> how much the other cares for you
E Pluribus Unum- “From many come ONE”
Omnia Paratus- prepared for all things”
- dark side of team cohesion-> distrust and disbelief (ie. Player initiation)
There is no positive relationship between initiation activities and cohesion (measured by GEQ)
Initiation acts are detrimental, it does NOT enhance team cohesion
-ASSESSMENT-> identify team strengths and challenges
-for amateur teams you can do team profiling, in 6 steps, you identify “ideal team” and try to be
more like them
-get player feedback on:
Strengths-> good goaltending
Threats->not winning if we get into the penalty box, lose focus and attention
Possibilities->we will win if we maintain discipline, we’ll win if we support one another
Weaknesses-> “our shifts are too long”, “we lack discipline”->too much complaining
-PLAN-> taking steps to improve individual and team efforts, “morale boosters”
-need to increase players’ control and involvement with the team
-to transform individuals into a team we need to set goal setting strategies using the interpersonal-
relations approach-> which focuses on understanding personal and team values and how they affect
cohesion
-Use qualitative & quantitative assessment
-Team goal setting strategies: strategies to improve team function
-SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION: Providing constructive feedback
Trust breeds trust
Good communication skills
-Coaches cannot use trickery to team building- athletes lose trust
-you can do everything right, but there are still no guarantees
-Performance= the execution of an action, something accomplished, the ability to perform
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