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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1000
Hernan Humana

KINE 1000 Exam-AID Review Package Tutors: Stephen Lao | [email protected] Habib Anwar | [email protected] 1 York SOS Preface This document was created by the York University chapter of Students Offering Support (York SOS) to accompany our KINE 1000 Exam-AID session. It is intended for students enrolled in any section of KINE 1000 2010/2011 who are looking for an additional resource to assist their studies in preparation for the exam. References Humana, H., & Safai, P. (2010). Demystifying Kinesiology: Socio-Cultural Perspectives in Kinesiology. Toronto, ON: McGrawHill. What is Students Offering Support? Students Offering Support is a national network of student volunteers working together to raise funds to raise the quality of education and life for those in developing nations through raising marks of our fellow University students. This is accomplished through our Exam-AID initiative where student volunteers run group review sessions prior to a midterm or final exam for a $20 donation. All of the money raised through SOS Exam-AIDs is funneled directly into sustainable educational projects in developing nations. Not only does SOS fund these projects, but SOS volunteers help build the projects on annual volunteer trips coordinated by each University chapter. 2 York SOS Tips for General Midterm Success Use mnemonics to remember concepts better. An example of a mnemonic would be acronyms. For instance, knowing the word “ocean” can help you remember the Big Five personality traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Do practice multiple choice questions. Doing these practice questions can assess your understanding of what you’ve learned and can help you identify areas of weakness. Practice multiple choice questions are found in textbooks, on textbook companion websites, and/or provided by your professor. Read a multiple choice question and try to answer it BEFORE looking at the possible answers. Having an answer in mind before looking at possible answers can reduce the chances of being fooled by wrong answers. Use logic and process of elimination on multiple choice questions. For example, if you know that answer A is wrong, then logically an answer “A and B are correct” in the same question must also be incorrect. When you don!t know the answer, eliminating wrong answers (as opposed to just random guessing) can increase your chances of getting the question right. Practice writing answers to short answer questions. If you know ahead of time what the questions will be on the short answer section, make a list of essential points you want to include in each answer and practice writing the answer on paper. If you don’t know what questions will be on the short answer section, you could try scanning the material to identify concepts that have enough content to be a possible short answer question. Again, you can make a list of essential points you want to include in each answer and practice writing the answer on paper. Even if the question you thought of doesn’t show up on the short answer section, doing this can help solidify what you learned. Don’t spend too much time on a difficult question. It is better to move onto easier questions to ensure getting those marks than to get hung up on a difficult question, especially when time is limited. Get adequate sleep the night before your test. Sleeping at night helps consolidate what you learned during the day into memory so that it is better remembered in future. Not only does staying up late the night before a test destroy your concentration during the test the next day, but your brain has not effectively learned the material. 3 York SOS Hit, Crunch, and Burn: Organized Violence and Men’s Sport – Burstyn • Coercive entitlement: Coercive, meaning through force. Therefore ones entitlement is earned through force by masculinist sports and violence • Catharsis theory: Innate drive in males that creates aggression; using sport to vent aggression as it is socially accepted • Cultural pattern theory: masculinity is learned and constructed by how sport is played and developed Sanctioned Violence in Men’s Sport • Sport is the human activity closest to war that isn’t lethal. • Both sport and war share culture of combat and the competitive deployment of force and violence • The provocation and cultivation of strategic anger involves the encouragement of violence by a masculinized individual, every confrontation is a test of manhood Sport, violence against women, and fear of the feminine • Verbal sparring and bragging about sexual conquests led to actual behaviour, peer values encouraged young men to treat females as object of conquest • Charles Barkley said “this is a game that, if you lose, you go home and beat your wife and kids.’ The use of sport metaphors in the language of sexual relations is predominantly a male practice • In our culture, softness that men must disown in the process of becoming a man and conforming to their role as a man is projected and displaced onto women • In boot camp, manhood was galvanized into recruits through deep cultural shame by stripping them of their male status • The hardness-softness dichotomy echoes and fortifies stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. The connotations around hardness and softness also flow from homophobia • To disown softness, men must prove their hardness by killing other men. These actions are legitimized and rewarded by blessings of their own women, whom they will defend and then possess • When men perceive their emotional wishes as rendering them ‘passive or powerless,’ those wishes are shameful. As a result, they are likely to project those wishes onto others which serves as justification for their violence against others • A culture that requires men to deny feminism is not only dangerous for women but for men themselves. Most lethal violence is committed by men against other men Sport, war culture, and masculinity from the 1960s to the 1980s • One of the most difficult developments for American men was conscription and mobilization for war in Vietnam, which was a test of both individual and national manhood 4 York SOS • The idea of fighting for your family and home bled into the culture as a whole, affecting ideals of masculinity, eroticism, and social conduct • What makes sport and war quintessential test of manhood is the involvement of danger and violence, actually or symbolically lethal. • The idea that women are built for birth and men for violence and death is one of our gender order’s most important organizing principles • There may also be physiological basis as sensations of death provoke huge cascades of adrenal hormones and neurotransmitters that bring about an intensification of experience • Our culture has a specific obsession and interpretation of violence in war, not only because of hormones, but because of social choices and influence of mass media • In movies like The Executioner, the strong muscled male body, fused with its weaponry is highly athleticized and eroticized. In some ways the relationship between man and weapon is transparently sexual. • However, in a heterosexual context it is not acceptable for men to gaze in an erotic manner at the male body, thus combat and weaponry provide an excuse for such gazing. At the same time the male body is diverted as a ‘fighting machine.’ • By imagining the body as a object of violence, erotic desire can be displaced as sadomasochism, where sexual pleasure is experienced from receiving or inflicting pain • War attracts men because its enduring emotion is comradeship. One’s comradeship and individual possessions are after all what contemporary American society prizes above all other things • Comradeship is also spilled into team sport where similar experiences of trust are established. Militarist terms are fused into football media and team language, further linking the two. • The hypermasculine quality may be explained by the need to compensate for the absence of a masculine figure in the person’s past and psyche Hypermasculinity, sport culture, and the rise of neo-conservatism • Although ideas of equality amongst all is a dominant democratic ideology in the 19 century, social Darwinism and individualism was still rampant and in some instances had overtaken democratic values • The justification behind the Vietnam War was to protect liberal democracy. This idea was instilled in every American due to president Kennedy’s athletic, aggressive masculinity and gendered political attitudes • Richard Nixon, quotes as being ‘one of the toughest hombres’ attributed the loss in Vietnam to the lack of masculinity and presence of gutless feminism • The liberal domestic agenda and social policy was regarded as feminine, weak, and unmanned. As a result the hypermasculinization of American society shifted the political mentality to the right (neo-conservatism) 5 York SOS • Bush found justification for the war in the Persian Gulf by relying on the hypermasculine American society. Where else would he turn for support than to the NFL where hypermasculinity was core. The 5 hour long football game turned into a huge ad for war. The Coach-Athlete Relationship: How Close is Too Close? – Bergmann Drewe The negative and positive aspects of friendly and intimate coach-athlete relationships is examined: The Relationship Continuum: There are two ends to the relationship continuum between coaches and athletes. At one end, coaches and athletes relate to one another in the role of coach-athlete. This is strictly a teacher and apprentice (student) role. At the other end, they have formed a sexual/romantic relationship. There are varying degrees of friendship between the two ends of the continuum. There is a danger at the end of the continuum; athletes may not want to be too friendly. The result may be intimacy. When Coaches and Athletes are Intimate: Positive aspect reported by athletes and coaches (who marry) – “he (she) understands my passion for the sport”. Negative aspects and danger or intimate relationships: 1. The Power Differential: The coach has a position of expertise that gives him/her power (Ex. Cut players, play time on the field, # hours for training sessions). The coach has an “all-encompassing” power that does not allow the athlete to make autonomous choices ! Free informed choice is lacking. This can lead to: Sexual Harassment may result if the athlete fears the repercussions of coach’s decisions. Player may feel he/she cannot say “no”. 2. The Conflict of Interest: Coach will unconsciously give more play time to the athlete to whom they are more intimate with. In other cases, the coach may be aware that others perceive he/she is favouring the intimate player and will thus neglect the intimate player (less playing time) in order to reverse this perception. In both cases, the coach is treating the player whom he/she is having the intimate relationship with unfairly. 6 York SOS When Coaches and Athletes are Friends The friendship between coaches and athletes can result from the experience of sharing the same passion for the sport. This experience is very positive for both the coach and athlete. The dangers in the “friend” end of the continuum, result when deep friendship occurs: 1. There cannot be actual friendship when there is inequality. This refers back to the “power differential”. The coach has enormous influence on the athlete results in “shaping” (The coach determines what is good/bad for the athlete to do). The friendship between the coach and the athlete is a result of the coach’s influence on the athlete. 2. The problems that arise from conflict of interest once again become apparent in deep friendships between coaches and athletes. Deep friendship cannot arise because the coach is unable to treat the athlete equally. When Coaches are Coaches and Athletes are Athletes For a strict coach and athlete relationship to occur, there must be no power differential, no conflict of interest and no potential for harassment. For this strict coach-athlete relationship to occur, avoiding mutual sharing of personal information should occur. The athlete must only be able to share personal information relevant to the shared goals of the coach and athlete in the sport that they take part in (Ex. Childhood dreams of winning a Gold Medal at the Olympics). Developing a utility friendship is most beneficial. The coach and athlete will share sporting goals that they can strive for. There is no conflict of interest or power differential because: ! The coach can share his/her philosophy and attitudes towards coaching and the shared sporting goals, and in return, the athlete agrees to respect the coach’s training method. There is equal respect and both work together to achieve the same interest (goal). (IR)RELEVANT RING: THE SYMBOLIC CONSUMPTION OF THE OLYMPIC LOGO IN POSTMODERN MEDIA CULTURE – VanWynsberghe & Ritchie - The Olympic flag and symbol symbolize the union of the five continents and the meeting of athletes from all over the world at the Olympic games in a spirit of fair and frank competition and good friendship, preached by Baron de Coubertin. - We conclude that the Olympic rings operate as an open-ended signifier enabling their continued symbolic consumption as both affective cultural icon and linguistic item whose 7 York SOS meaning emerges out of the links between products and people's everyday lives. They represent the product of a carefully cultivated media endeavour. - Inspired by Pierre de Coubertin. The account of the birth of the Olympic logo disputes the widely accepted myth of an historical link existing between the five ring symbol of the modern Olympic movement and the games of ancient Greece. - The emblem and the flag chosen to represent this 1914 World Congress, which will place the definitive seal on the Olympic revival, has started to appear on various preliminary documents: Five rings regularly interlocked. It is a common misconception that the five ring symbol and its colours were originally designed to represent the participation of individual continents in the Olympic Games. That wasn't the case, Coubertin himself explained the blue, black, yellow, green and red are set off against a background which is paper white. These five rings represent the five parts of the world from this point on won over to olympism and given to accepting rivalry. The six colours combined reproduce the colours of all the nations with no exception. Blue and yellow of Sweden, white and blue of Greece, tricolours of France, England, and America, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Australia with Japan and China. Truly an international symbol. - Coubertin original intent was not to have the rings or colours to represent continents. The rings might have represent the five HOST nations of the Olympic games: Greece, France, U.S.A., England, Sweden. - As Saussure points out, the operation inherent to associating these two terms, in structuring a single linguistic item, entails the connection of more than " a thing and a name" if is the psychological imprint of the sound, the impression that it makes on our senses. The rings linguistic operation can be understood as an organic relationship of parts that make sense only in relation to one another- the modern Olympic Games and the rings. The signifier consists of the material aspect of the sign, while the signified is the meaning represented by the material aspect of the sign. Two objections might be raised at this point. First, as the rings are visual and not phonetic, how can they constitute the sound image to which saussure referred? In response we submit that the rings are not simply visual for the expression "Olympic rings" can not only be written, but also used phonetically, thus conjuring up the powerful psychological images that have lead to its ascribed status. The rings operate as a signifier. Second, not the the rings of the Olympic games invoking" a natural bond between signifier and signified" it is possible to compare the Olympic rings with the scales of justice an archetype. Our important goal of producing a more complete understanding of the Olympic logo as an ad tool must transcend, but not neglect, semiotic analysis and examine the political economy of the sign in order to illuminate the relationship between sign and commodity. -Baudrillards earliest research proposes that "sign value" is a necessary insertion into the usual marxian distinctions between "use value" and "exchange value" thereby capturing the prestige element that accompanies any commodity purchase and this reflection upon 8 York SOS the consumer. Gruneau notes that no matter what the intentions of the founders of the modern olympics, the possibilities were limited to them because of the economic system as a whole and the network of social institutions associated with it. Gruneau asserts the prohibitive cost of hosting the games became a factor in the expanded circulation of the olympic logo as both sign and commodity. Signs were produced as commodities the only way they could make enough money to host the olympics was to use these signs and to advertise for example : mcdonalds, roots. - For Baudrillard, advertising begins this process by coding "products through symbols that differentiate them from other products. it is necessary to conduct a detailed and grounded examination of the coding of products through symbols. To begin we turn to gruneau who asserts that the underlying rationale behind all advertising is the establishment of a set of deeply rooted symbolic connections with a target audience. Explicating the nature of these symbolic connections goes beyond determining if the five rings operate as a symbol, concentrating instead on the significance of establishinig such a symbolic relationship. -The sports industry has become dependent upon the media; the media in turn derive their revenues for the purchase of sports broadcast rights from advertisers who with to reach the audiences that watch sports. Sports are a powerful and cultural force they give meaning to the lives of many people. - The nature of commodity production in consumption oriented cultures, however is no simple matter. The relationship between the commodity qua object people as consumers and th ewider cultural landscape is extremely complex. -If a particular symbol-qua signifier- were to be irrelevant, to have no meaning, it would be powerful because it can be used to virtually represent any product; advertisers could construct any story they wanted around such a symbol, while at the same time it would mean something different for diverse groups of people. The product would be sold, diverse groups of people could create their own meanings around the symbolic representation of products and, the symbol will be completely relevant and irrelevant. -The Olympic logo is such an irrelevant signifier. It serves the needs of consumerism very well. The Symbols fictitious past gaurantees its contemporary power, and the implicit link to the Games. An international event. The greatest ad tool for olympics is the television. -Televisions role in advanced capitalists socieites, where hign consumption levesl are necessary for expansion. The meanings created by TV are ambiguous, as is our knowledge of how the complext tv-viewer relationship operates. The effect of tv has been to reduce objects to images. The objects of fulfillment encoded with consumerist meanings can be decoded in a variety of alternative or oppositional ways by members of the audience. TV has an emotional impact and can affect many different viewers in many ways. 9 York SOS -To argue that advertisin and the production of cultural commodities the production o culture itself, creates a passive spectator/consumer is similarly much to simplistic. Advertisers do not exploit a mindless viewer, rather advertising adroitly plays on the ability of spectators to create meaning to everyday lives. That is why irrelevant/ambigous meanings are thrust into viewers lives through ads, and the utilization of olympic games is an effective tool for such advertising. - By merging trademarks of their corporation and the olympic institution, advertisers hope to formulate an image of their product that partakes in the prestige accorded the modern olypmpic movement as symbolized by the 5 interlocking rings. This is shown through fast food, sports clothing, camera film. Corporate advertisers and television networks use olympic logo, it fulfills its role to advertisers by providing a set of powerful images that are completly receptive to being affiliated with virtually any commodity. IN CONCLUSION: - Actual origin of the 5 interlocking rings were as a commemorative icon, no overarching symbol for the olympic movement. The rings symbolic consumption contributes more to the games marketing success than the use value of the products to which they are attached. -the rings represent the superimposition of two interrelated operations. First the modernist utilization of gloabal ideas. Second a postmodernist interpretation of the rings that sees them as mere convention and depicts their consumption as highly symbolic despite the fact that their meaning is ultimately irrelevant. - tv enables advertisers to work the magic of the rings by nurturing meaings that accompany such images. In other words, both the medium and the message -The meanings of the rings are endless. The Body Snatchers and Dr.Frankenstein Revisited – Dequin • Healthy athlete is a oxymoron An ethic of caring • Ethic of care involves demonstrating concern for the protection, growth, health, and well-being of self and others • Ethic if care empathizes developing a sense of emotional empathy, of responding to human needs, or fulfilling interpersonal responsibilities • Sports educators and sport scientist affect the social construction of three categories of bodies in sport 1. They produce majority of the knowledge 2. They assist in constructing the body of athletes 3. As educators, they contribute to the creation of the body politic 10 York SOS " Body politics - the practices and policies through which powers of society regulate the human body The body of knowledge • Author suggest that we ‘deconstruct’ ourselves in order to identify who we are and what we can be • In essence we are machinery made up of individual components • In order to succeed in performance one must fine tune the machinery • We assume failures in individual components is isolated and can be replaced: hence ‘Dr Frankenstein’ • Culture of risk: by implying that the human body is a machine, we force ourselves to destruction • The danger of human objectification is the possibility of diminishing emotional response and empathy • Sport is a place for the expression of strong emotions, however emotions that negatively affect performance is discouraged. Thus, one must dissociate from oneself and block pain associated with sport and training • Asymmetrical power relations between coaches and athletes contribute to the practice of social and emotional distancing between coaches and athletes • Coach who do not understand the individuals in each athlete is less likely to feel a strong personal responsibility to care for the athlete • Author asserts that coaches are more concerned with giving than receiving information • The normalization of such coach-athlete relationship acts to diminish ethic of care The bodies of athletes • Our culture emphasizes the concept of individualism and freedom, but when this is applied to sport, injuries are regarded as personal problems. • By regarding injuries as a personal problem, gives harmful sports coverage from scrutiny • The loss of feeling signals the loss of the moral and ethical self The body politic • Athletes are socialized into a ‘norm of expect inequality’ regarding the coach- athlete relationship • The process of educating students through critical pedagogy 1. Ethics – educators must foster in students the ability to question the formal rules and informal norms of organizations 2. Desilencing – bring to public consciousness to aspects of sport that are hidden to preserve status quo 11 York SOS 3. Value differences - being able to reject what is accept in favour of more practical knowledge 4. Challenge and transform – don’t adapt to existing social and political forms When will there be a real world series? – Klein • The author defines globalization as: two intersecting continua, one of which is political-economic, the other cultural The G-Word • Globalization has led to Interconnectivity – increased interdependence of commerce, government, and individuals around the world • A consequence of global interconnectedness is ‘time-space compression,’ to describe the accelerated experience of time and decrease notion of space • Some argue that the Utopian picture of giving the poor employment and a better life may not be true since no world government regulates growth of either parties • The author argues that globalization exist along two continua, the first is political and economic. On the far ends of the continua are: o testicular globalization – to retain the economic dominance of the industrialized west at the expense of the test o tough love globalization – inclusive corporation and nations, allowing nations capable of expanding to expand and those who can’t are excluded. Not utopian vision where all wealth is shared. • The 2 continua is culture with extreme ends are: o Americanization – the spread of American commodities synonymous with American power. People inevitably wind up losing their own culture; many believe sport plays a significant role in the process. o Local/Indigenous – implies a refusal to simply give in to globalization Global sport studies (Cultural) • In order for the MLB to enter the international market it must be instigate cultural change • For a brand to attain icon status, it has to be fused with its culture’s myths, reflecting the ideas of the culture 12 York SOS • Trying to establish something as American as baseball into foreign culture is like trying to instil American culture, therefore the local attitudes towards the US must be considered Baseball and Cross-cultural Branding (Cause) • Baseball is well established in Japan with the national NPB (Nippon professional baseball). Therefore a game between the MLB and NPB was waiting to happen. Unfortunately, the game resembled a battle between nations instead of a collective effort • In order to win the Japanese fan’s trust, MLB must establish it self as part of their cooperative, not colonial, future • Cause marketing : collaboration between for-profit and non-profit groups in order to further their cause • One such occurrence of cause marketing is when MLB established itself in South Africa. They gave opportunities for the needed to experience team sports, and at the same time local firms signed on to feel that they are part of their social future • MLB was promoted in a multiracial format with great commitment to the growth of communities. As a result the government regarded baseball as a ‘priority sport.’ Inventing tradition (Traditional) • Invented tradition – a practice, behaviour or ritual that is of recent origin but has a feel of something quite old. Helps in foster a sense of community among different clusters of people. • Invented tradition creates a sense of shared world where conflict resolution is possible • One example is the feud between the Red Sox and Yankees, they gathered a wild television audience by creating the sense of tradition with both sides gathering huge fellowship Last thoughts o MLB has the resources to act enter the global market but it must refrain from becoming the ‘800-lbs’ gorilla when dealing with others. They must ‘decentralize’ and refrain from thinking about themselves in order for them to grow globally o MLB was able to blur national boundaries by having foreign nationals in administrative positions in US teams 13 York SOS o Must focus on ‘tough love’ globalization and no ‘testicular’ globalization which seeks only to colonize Social Change in the Global Context By: A. L. Allahar Social change can be divided into micro-level and macro-level changes. This article presents some leading theories of change, both radical and conservative at the macro-level. It also discusses how women are affected by social change in developing countries. Theoretical approach to social change is to describe and explain how human societies have changed from traditional (simpler) to industrial (more complex) entities. The field of historical sociology has been established because macro-sociologists today are looking to history as a source of understanding social change. Immanuel Wallerstein, a leading historical sociologist, uses the concept of world system for understanding historical change and emergence of present international order. Three types of world systems he uses include world empire, world economy and world government. He views the present system as having resulted from graphical expansion, development of an international division of labour and the consolidation of strong national states. Charles Tilly, another leading historical sociologist, criticizes Wallerstein’s work to be overly descriptive and insufficiently analytical. Tilly identifies two master change processes; expansion of capitalism and growth of national states. Compared to Wallerstein, he focuses on matters as proletarianization and capital accumulation. Tilly’s work serves as an ideal compliment to that of Wallerstein’s. Newton’s work led thinkers to embrace science and rationality as a means of comprehending the universe and looking beyond religion for explanation of natural, human and social phenomena. Whereas Darwin’s work ked him to postulate that human beings were not descended from Adam and Eve but rather are higher forms of life that evolved from lower forms of life through natural selection and survival of the fittest. Spencer applied these approaches, natural selection and survival of the fittest, to human societies. His approach is labelled social Darwinism (or social evolutionism) and is sought to be married to bipolar (or before/after approach) to social change and development by many sociologists. Ferdinand Toennies and Emile Durkheim take this approach. Toennies saw community as representing a simple, even rural, way of life, whereas in society social relations are more complex, impersonal and formal. In Durkheim’s mechanical solidarity, Durkheim spoke of social cohesion as based on fundamental similarity and used the concept of organic solidarity to describe the latter type of society. Social Darwinists focus on two related processes within specific societies, social differentiation and social integration. According to Neil Smelser change and development are to be conceived as a “contrapuntal interplay between differentiation and integration”. Basically social Darwinism views societies as changing and developing in response to gradual, qualitative passage from less to more differentiated social forms which develops complex structures of specialization and functional interdependence. Modernization and value orientation theory stresses the important role of values and attitudes in bringing about political and economic change in a given country. The opposite of social change, social persistence (or traditionalism) suggests that backwardness is caused by the lack of modern thinking, progressive values and positive 14 York SOS attitudes. Instead of asking what development is or what happens in the course of development, modernization theorists ask why it happens, what specifically causes the breakthrough from traditional to modern societies. Therefore Western Europe was able to develop and advance on the basis of its people’s “progressive” value and attitudinal structures, whereas in the Third World, people encourage the perpetuation of traditional, conservative arrangements and gently militate against change. Compared to social Darwinism, modernization theory does not content itself with merely describing traditional and modern societies but explains why some remain backward and others advance/change. According to David McClelland entrepreneurs possess the “strategic mental virus” encouraging the establishment of businesses, economic rationality and market innovativeness which is crucial to escaping traditionalism and developing a modern, industrial society. To the extent that social change is positively regarded today, it is equated with being or becoming modern, and modernization thinkers are often called upon by the governmental and other leaders in the poorer countries to help design strategies for setting their counties on the road to modernity. In the development decade of 1960s, it was clear that change, such as decolonization and political interdependence, was high on the priority lists of the leaders of the developing countries. While it was clear that change and the political re-ordering of the world were inevitable, the developed countries were keen to manage the change in the developing nations, influencing its direction and content. United States and the Soviet Union were set about delineating their perspective spheres of influence, establishing friendly relations with various peripheral states and securing then as allies. In the process, the word “democracy” came to assume vital importance especially for US and its Western allies. To maintain friendly relations with the populations that were potentially vulnerable to Soviet advances, the US worked to convince them of the evils of communism. Communist teachings identified class inequality as the main source of problem; therefore it became a major task of the developing countries to assist poorer nations in passing through these early stages as soon as possible. Critics argue that developing nations are made to surrender a great deal of their political and economic autonomy in exchange for economic assistance. Modernization thinking continues to exert a strong influence on development planning in the post-Cold War period. A leading exponent of this approach to social society, Lawrence Harrison, states that those who wish to explain backwardness and underdevelopment in terms of colonialism and imperialism are engaged in “a paralysing and self defeating mythology, which is Marxist-Leninist. Defining culture exclusively in terms of values and attitudes and virtually ignoring historical and structural variables, he characterizes “progress prone cultures as better places for human beings to live, than traditional, static cultures”. Harrison’s model is heavily influenced by modernization assumptions but he goes further than modernization when he invokes factors such as climate and geography as independent variables affecting social change and development in poor countries. However since no one can change the climate and geography of a country, he is literally saying that modern society is inaccessible to some. Post-industrialism is the view which holds that developed nations have left the industrial era behind, accepts and extends the ideas of evolutionary and value orientation perspective on change and development. The best known supporters of post-industrialism are Alain Touraine and Daniel Bell who have identified several key aspects in which 15 York SOS post-industrial society differs from its industrial forerunner. Four features of post- industrial society the two authors indentified are the increasing importance of professional and technical workers, an emphasis on theoretical knowledge as opposed to manual skills, planning and growth of technological growth and the growing use of intellectual technology. Giddens notes that Bell and Touraine are in agreement that “the university, which is the main locale in which theoretical knowledge is formulated and evaluated, becomes the key institution in the newly emerging society”. Because the new post-industrial society is one in which possessing technical knowledge becomes more important than owning property, Touraine believes the “technocrats” have become the new dominant class in society. Another reason for the optimistic view of change held by the post-industrial thesis has to do with ideology. If developed nations have moved to post-industrial order, they also have transcended the problems and contradictions that Marx identified in industrial society. In this context, it is instructive to turn once again to Bell, who directly challenges Marx’s labour theory of value, the idea that labour is a source of all value, and that its exploitation constitutes the basis of capitalist profits. However, Bell does not specify the details of how the labour that produces knowledge is organized, nor does he provide an adequate definition of knowledge. Therefore, a challenging set of questions still remains unanswered. It may be that the optimism of post-industrialism has proven to be largely illusory or ideological. To be sure, there are more professionals, from lawyers and accountants to managers and executives. Basically, while it is true that significant social changes have been registered in the areas of employment, education, and science and technology, and that these changes have had a considerable effect on the lives of those in advanced, industrial nations, sociologists are not generally convinced that post-industrial society has solved the problems of its supposed predecessor. Dependency is an economic condition that characterizes a relationship between economies of two or more nations, wherein one expands at the expense of the other. Moreover, countries which are dependent on others, for whatever reason, are disadvantaged. Although there are many verities of emphasis within dependency theory, all of its adherents agree on one key point: Underdevelopment is not the original state in which all societies once found themselves. According to dependency theory, the present situation in the less developed countries of the world reflects the economic and political consequences of colonialism and imperialism. Dependency theorists argue that, to the extent that change occurs in the Third World countries, it is a deformed type of change, since these nations are not permitted to develop in an autonomous fashion. According to the dependency school, the result is that political leaders in the Third World countries often reduced to being pawns and junior partners on international capitalism. Although Marxists agree with the overall spirit and direction of the dependency theory, they find it too descriptive and lacking in class analysis. They view the development of capitalism as an uneven economic system. For this reason they seek to account for underdevelopment in terms of specific class interests operating within both developed and poor developing countries. Today access is secured by those who control MNCs in collaboration with local political and business leaders, who together establish operations in targeted sectors of the developing country. Arrangements of these sorts are described as imperialism by Marxists, who argue that the social changes which result are far more politically 16 York SOS manipulated than wither social Darwinism or modernization theory would suggest. Dependency theorists, like Marxists, view underdevelopment, poverty and backwardness as a product of imperialism. Canada was described as the world’s richest underdeveloped country by Kari Levitt, implying that, although Canada was rich in resources, its wealth was not always used for the betterment of average Canadians. In a more recent study, Jorge Niosi has agreed with Levitt’s assertion that the Canadian economy has long been subject to external control and dependence on foreign influences. Niosi speaks of Canada’s “dependent industrialization” and outlines in clear detail the processes by which American corporations have “invaded” the Canadian economy and established controlling interests in many areas. The example of Canada is most instructive for studying social change at the national or regional level because the country is vast and diverse enough to afford useful empirical examples of many elements of society that one might wish to emphasize. Gender, in addition to nation, region or class, is a crucial factor in the analysis of change and economic development. The focus of the module has been mainly the Third World, where many women consider themselves among the poorest of the poor, the least empowered of the powerless. Of the working poor and the unemployed, the most disadvantaged are, predictably, single mothers. Throughout the countries of the periphery, poor women have been increasingly active and innovative in responding to their social and economical plight. Four main patterns of response can be identified; more women are seeking jobs outside home, have increased their level of participation in the informal economic sector as maids, cooks etc, living and consumption patterns are being modified and finally, the women from poorer countries are more visible in statistics on both legal and illegal out-migration. As “the last colony” of capitalist and imperialist exploitation, women cannot be left out of any analysis of economic development today, or any proposals for meaningful and progressive political and social change in the future. All of the world’s people must develop greater sensitivity to the fragility and scarcity of virtually all natural resources, for environmental factors go beyond individual governments and countries to embrace the entire species and the planet as a whole. Interrupting the cycle of oppression: The Role of Allies as Agents of change By: Andrea Ayvazian We become immobilized and uncertain about what actions we can take to stop the cycle of oppression. Oppression is defined as the combination of prejudice and access to social and political and economic power on the part of a dominant group. In each form of oppression there is a dominant group and there is a targeted group where the dominants have the unearned advantage or privilege and the targeted group does not. One way to overcome this oppression is to assume the role of an ally. An ally is a member of a dominant group in our society who works to finish any form of oppression. Allies take it as their personal responsibility for the changes we know are needed in our society, and so 17 York SOS often ignore or leave to others to deal with. This behaviour is intentional, explicit, and a consistent activity that challenges prevailing patterns of oppression, making the privileges that are invisible visible and provides power to the targeted persons of oppression. PFLAG (Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays) is a perfect example of an ally. It is an organization of mainly heterosexuals who organize support groups and engage in support and education among other heterosexuals around the issues gay and lesbian liberation. We also know that everyone has multiple social identities. We are all dominant and targeted at the same time. The author says that she is dominant and targeted at the same time, she is dominant because she is white and targeted because she is a women. Network of allies across the country can make a huge difference in this country regarding violence. A major source of violence in our society is the constant inequality between the dominants and the targeted groups. Oppression keeps in its place due to two things; 1) Ideology and 2) Violence. The oppression significantly decreases when allies rise up against violence. Ayvazian discusses about the research studies which have confirmed that the only factor which remarkably increases the chance of a women’s survival in domestic violence is if the victimizer himself is exposed to direct and constant anti-battering involvement. Oppression and Violence are woven together where one leads to the other and one justifies the other. Allied behaviour is an effective way of interrupting the cycle of violence by breaking the silence which makes the cycle of violence stronger. Allied behaviour increases equity, decreases violence, and also provides positive role models. The role of an ally offers young people who are white, male, and in other dominant categories a positive, proactive, and proud identity. Rather than feeling guilty, shameful, and immobilized as the “oppressor,” whites and other dominants can assume the important and useful role of social change agents. Social change agents are allies who bring a change in the society. The author shares her experience of being in schools and asking people to name famous living whites racists and students can usually come up with a few names like David Duke and Senator Jesse Helmes. However, when she asks about famous living white anti-racists people cannot come up with names. Why? Well, because they are not well known. She says that she believes that it is difficult for young people to grow up and become something they have never heard of. If young people knew more about famous anti-racists, perhaps they would be inspired to engage in more anti-racist activities themselves. In areas where we are dominant, we need to take the initiative and struggle for equity and justice. The author’s own story shows how she is doing her part of assuming her role as ally. She says that she has chosen not to get married until gay and lesbian couples get the right to be married legally and receive all the rights that heterosexual couples do. Then she says that being an ally is not all that strait and clear cut because all these issues are complex, too painful, and too pervasive. We cannot be expecting to see results for our efforts and the second thing is that we do not have to be perfect. Even Kenneth Jones says that an important characteristic of being a strong ally is to be consistently conscious and not being perfect. We all have a potential within us to make an enormous change. Therefore we can interrupt the cycle of oppression and model a new way of behaving and believing. 18 York SOS The Transformation of Silence into Language and Action By: Audre Lorde Audre Lorde, the author of this article is a Black lesbian poet who reorganized her life priorities and outlook during a three-week waiting period for breast surgery that would reveal if she had cancer,. Through this process she learned that the thing that she regretted the most was her silence. She believed that to question or to speak could have meant pain, or even death. But then she realized that we all hurt in many different ways, and pain either changes or ends. However, death on the other hand, is the final silence which could happen sooner or later. She says, “In becoming forcibly and essentially aware of my mortality, and of what I wished and wanted for my life, however short it might be, priorities and omissions became strongly etched in a merciless light, and what I most regretted were my silences.” Here the author seems to be saying that silence contributes to self-oppression, other-oppression, and to separation, where we “rob ourselves of ourselves and each other.” She also suggest that the only way women can survive is by taking part in a process of life that is creative and continuing, which is simply growth. Confronting Ourselves By: Robert Jensen This article looks at some of the crucial issues that arise when we take seriously the connection between the personal and political dominance, and also discusses personal responsibility. Personal responsibility has been used as a weapon against poor and oppressed people claiming that it is entirely one’s own fault if one is not successful in our society. The author also touches upon questions about our own lifestyles and their relationships to the society. Moreover, Jensen includes the problems of despair and suggests reasons we should be hopeful about the personal and political possibilities. Jensen suggests that we “seek pain and reduce pleasure.” He says if we want to be something more than just human beings and if we want to be something more than comfortable and complacent citizens of the empire, then we have to start seeking pain and reducing our pleasure. Then he shares his experience that he had with two students several months after 9/11. As the first student was learning more and more about the sufferings of others around the world, especially in Palestine, she felt that pain. Jensen convinced the student that she was not the only one felt like a “freak” for feeling so much, so deeply. The second student was arguing whether or not it was worth to put resources and produce drugs to save poor people in the Third World countries. Jensen got angry and told the student to come back when she was ready to sacrifice a member of her own family. He wanted to make her empathize with people who aren’t white like her and not comfortable like her, people whose suffering is far away from her. He says that without empathy, without the ability to move outside our own experience, there is no hope of changing the world. CBU-87, also known as a cluster bomb is a bomb that U.S. pilots drop from U.S. planes paid for by U.S. tax dollars. Each bomb contains 202 individual submunitions called bomblets which are the size of a soda can. Human Rights Watch estimated that more than 1600 Kuwaiti and Iraqi civilians have been killed, another 2500 injured, by the cluster bombs in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. The United States Army decided to modify the bombs not on humanitarian grounds, but to allow the U.S. army to advance. Jensen says 19 York SOS that we do not have to kill civilians in wars, we can fight wars without killing young people who are innocent. He shares an example of a thirteen-year-old boy, who was walking with his fourteen-year-old cousin. They saw something yellow and picked it up, and threw it when it exploded and the fourteen year old had his head cut off and the thirteen year old was thrown a meter in the air and survived the explosion, but with both his legs amputated. Jensen says that there are ways to fight wars in which fewer fourteen- year-olds get killed and thirteen-year-olds broken. In our society today we take for granted the living standards we live in, which majority of the world can barely imagine and can never expect to live in. He says that the U.S. is only 5% of the world’s population but still consumes 25% of the world’s oil, and 30% of the gross world product. The Policy Planning Staff memorandum 23 is used as an example to show that we do not really care about the Third World countries. And the middle-class Americans think that because of U.S. dominance in the world they are living the comfortable lives. Because of that they support policies and wars of dominance to protect that comfort. Other peoples deprivation is provides us with maintain the consumption of 25% of the world’s oil and 30% of gross world product. He suggests that we need to start living lives that are “grotesquely wasteful and based on unjustifiable disparities.” These personal choices will end up being insignificant without engaging in larger political struggle to change the structure of society, but they are complementary; one can’t go forward without the other. Our goal is to transform our society and
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