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Kine 1000 Final Exam Notes.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1000
Hernan Humana

Toward a New Vision: Patricia Hill Collins Oppression: • Race • Social Class • Religion • Sex Orientation • Ethnicity • Age White Feminist: -oppression as woman but resist white skin privileges -Black women see poor white women as ‘white power’ AdditiveAnalysis of Oppression: 1. Dichotomous thinking (black/white) 2. Ranked dichotomous thinking (whites rule black) Piece of oppressor: 1. New vision of oppression 2. Ranking oppressions 3. Change daily behavior Audre Lorde: -‘The true focus of revolutionary change is never merely the oppressive situations which we seek to escape, but that piece of the oppressor which is planted deep within each of us’ -‘change starts with self’ - relationships are primary site for social change Sandra Harding: Gender oppression is structured along 1. Institutional (dom/sub) -Plantation is a metaphor for institutional oppression 2. Symbolic -Masculine (aggressive, leader, strong) -Feminine (passive, follower, weak, emotional) 1. Individual Nikki Giovanni: ‘live in the real world, if we don’t like it, change it” June Jordan: Grief could be avoided if people understand that partnership in misery doesn’t provide partnership for change Voyeurism: -Privileged people are passive onlookers to people in poverty -Representing relationships of power How to stop Racism: 1. Recognize differences in power and privilege 2. Coalitions: Alliance for a combined action 3. Building Empathy and relationships for social change Critical Thinking and Thinking Critically Barbie Girls Versus Sea Monsters: Michael Messner 3 Levels of Analysis: Simultaneously mutually intertwined, none supersede the other 1. Performance of gender - Interaction level: how children perform gender and their contributions 2. Structure of gender - Structural Context: how do organizations likeAYSO hold gender constrains 3. Culture of gender -Cultural Symbol: symbolic resources for the creation or categorical differences Thorne: - Argued pervious theoretical frameworks were helpful but limited ­ Children are active agents in the creation of their worlds ­ In direct opposition to values adults are attempting to socialize them ­ ‘Gender play’analyses the social process that children construct gender ­ Group life with social relations Hochschild: Magnified Moments: episodes of heightened importance, either epiphanies, moments of intense glee of unusual insight or moments in which things go intensely but meaningfully wrong. Team Names: Sea-Monsters Barbie Girls 4-5 years old 4-5 years old Green-blue Green-white Shoving, nudging Holding hands, dancing Parents: -main limits and dangers of theroies of performativity ­ Gender performances are interpreted as free agents acting out the inevitable natural sex differences. ­ ‘Their so different’– Stamping adult approval to the children’s actions Walters: Performance of gender is never a simple voluntary act -Children are active agents - Historical, social and political configurations that constrain or enable interactions Kellser and McKenna: Analysis of gender as an everyday practical accomplishment of people’s interactions. Zimmerman: People’s everyday interactions were ‘doing gender’; public moment of Girl Power, boys found displacement, fears of feminine pollution. Defined school as femine because they had ‘rough play’outside. -Constructing masculine dominance and feminine deference AYSO: ­ 21 men & 9 women on the board ­ 133 men & 23 women are coaches ­ Team managers were women; snacks, reminder calls ­ Men are supported by women ­ Men are the main decision makers ­ 87 boys teams & 69 girls teams Barbie: ­ Pleasurable intergroup bonds and boundaries ­ Plastic in both form of cultural meanings children and adults create around her ­ Hegemonic discourse strategies that attempt to incorporate consumers for a range of possible interpretations; multicultural Barbie ­ ‘We girls can do anything’–Barbie Slogan ­ Barbie girls are emphasizing feminity Second Wave Feminist: -Barbie symbolizes all that was oppressive about feminity -‘Girl Power’– dancing around the Barbie LEGO Feminine LEGO called LEGO friends -Goal was to give opportunity to girls, but offended people by being gender specific. Bailey Richards & Stephanie Cole: Launched a petition to make LEGO commit to equality in marketing Slogan: ‘Come as you are’–Attempting to be gender-neutral Social Class and Social Determinants of Health Nickel and Dimed on Not Getting By inAmerica: Barbara Ehrenreich Journey: -Wanted to explore the world that welfare are entering into (50,000mothers/month) -Experience poverty and how it really feels -Fake resume: divorced homemaker, housekeeping in private homes -Real resume: middle-class journalist -Low-wage work is not a solution to poverty, not even homelessness -Waitressing is no sign of being financially viable -Gail shares a room with a male, sexually harassed but cannot afford anything else -Annette is 6-months pregnant, abandoned by boyfriend -Low-wage people are too smart, funny and caring for their hard work -Social Determinants of health; employment, housing, food security Agency: Idea that individuals are completely free to choose how they live Structure: Idea that social conditions determine how people live Space, Place and Health: Food Deserts (Oliver De Shutter) Food Insecurity: -Inadequate access to food in the context of financial restraints -2/3 families -Associated with household factors; income, not by food retail -1/10 are food insecure -1/4 people at ‘the stops free food’have jobs -Poor are not lazy, they are exhausted -Consequence of government policy Food Desert: Deprived areas with poor access to healthy, affordable food Goal: Determine the relationship between household food security and neighborhood characteristics Neighborhood: -Access to discount supermarkets -Social Capitol -Community programs Household: -Income level -Welfare status -Immigrant status Location: -Low income areas in inner-city neighborhoods have the poorest access to supermarkets by walking -Trust in one’s community may be predictive of household food security status -Rooted in inadequate financial resources -Canada is behind in regard to economic and social rights -Don’t significantly reduce negative effects of insufficient financial resources on food security Sex and Gender The Egg and the Sperm: Emily Martin Goal: -Reduce the gender stereotypes taught to us in biology -Biology depicts males to be superior to women when referring to reproduction -‘Sperm penetrates the egg’ Rosalind Petchesky: -Research is showing younger fetuses; this can help the egg and sperm roles -Cultural stereotype even though the egg is larger and more active, the sperm overpowers -Egg interrupts the sperms dive with a sudden and swift rush WoodyAllen: “Everything you always wanted to know about sex but afraid to ask” Atypical representation, sperm are weak John Hopkins: -1984, Hopkins University -The egg was an ‘aggressive sperm catcher’ Social Implications: -Women poses as a dangerous threat -Femme fatale: women who victimize men are difficult for a Western society -Biology is attributing to gender: associate sperm with male end egg with female. Sporting Spaced and Health Effects PanAmerican Games in Rio 2007: Matrin Curi, Joege Knijnik & Gilmar Mascarenhas Goal: -For countries to affirm their global profile -Positive media coverage and tourism -Maintain international norms in relation to building Problem: -Highlighted by the media in Commonwealth countries -Stereotyping inadequacy of developing nations -Social inequity provokes a confrontation -Organization committee constructed a large wall to hide the favelas (slums) -Majority of population had no access to the games, yet paid taxes for built facilities The ‘Wazzock’: Mitt Romney is Wrong about London Olympics Mitt Romney: -‘Didn’t know if Olympics would be a success’ -UK is not under prepaired (like Mitt said) but they are over-prepared (cameras everywhere, troops, gunship, harassment of peaceful protests) Jules Boykoff: 4 Risks to the Games: 1. Terrorism 2. Protest 3. Organized Crime 4. Natural Disasters Media and Representation: Sport and Representation: Purpose: Show how images have the power to reproduce dominant beliefs in society Waneek Horn-Miller:- posed naked on the cover of Time -Glamorous -Not muscular but feminine -Sexuality is presented emphatically -Prove her Canadianess; Maple Leaf -Sexually objectified -Fear of indigenous people that exists in mainstream Representation: A‘sign’; meaning of something signified and a code that connects the two Signifier CodeSignified Context: Intended meaning is underdetermined by the image (image and text) Denotation: The obvious meaning Connotation: The not-obvious meaning – More complex Over-determined: -Stereotypes are rigid and over-determining the person behind the image -Not seeing the real person but the stereotype Racism: -Aform or fear of what is different -Not random but located in the different level of resources between the dom. and sub Jackie Robinson’s Bitter Pill: Key Points: • Leader in civil rights movement • First black man in MLB • Negro Baseball League; Ricky: ’no league, no right to have organized baseball to respect them.’ Sport and Celebrity: ActivistAthlete: -Professional athlete who uses their high profile in society to speak out about -controversial social justice issues. -Bill Russell -AurtherAshe -MuhammadAli –disagreement with the Vietnam War CelebrityAthlete: Professional athlete who earns income through corporate sponsors Adrian Gonzalez: -Statement that he may boycott theAll-Star festivities inArizona due to the controversial law passed to stem illegal immigration that may have racist implications -Discriminating Athletes Who Came Out (after retirement): -Esera Tualo: NFL -JohnAmaechi: NBA Hall of Famers Who Defend Gay: -Charles Barkley -Michael Irvin Importance ofAppearance: Part1: Cosmetic Surgery Goal: Understand cosmetic surgery as a socio-cultural phenomenon by analyzing the Recounted experiences of women who choose to undergo cosmetic surgical procedures. Danger: 30-50% of people experience serious side effects Justifications: 1. The body is flawed 2. Flaw doesn’t represent the character 3. The owner cannot control the flaw Why: -To gain normality -To be more attractive Continuum: Financial cost Health risks  What does it say about me? Physical readiness What does it say about society? How I will look Fatness and Fitness: Moss Norman Double Bind: -Men are governed by traditional masculinity -Feel pressured to transform bodies into muscular figures -Contradictory directives that put them in a difficult position Goal: Young men actively negotiate the double bind of masculinity, how do they work to be masculine, yet excluding requirements of masculinity Discourse of Heterosexuality: -Having a nice body helps you ‘get girls’ -You must have confidence, more important than looks -Downplaying appearance allowed them to relieve tension -If they didn’t follow the typical body they disinterested themselves Sexuality and Heteronormativity Sport and Sexual Representation Masculinity: aggression, competition, accumulation of wealth and success Sexual Regulation: sexuality is regulated by social codes and morals, politics, history and economics GamalAbdel-Shehid: our society fears differences because they are assumed as a threat resulting to hostility or violence Gail Bederman: the more domestic the woman, the more specialized the man resulting to advanced civilization Michel Foucault: • Sexuality: not natural or given, ‘telling of sexuality produces discourses or ‘truths’about sexuality • Truths are produced based particular norms • Truths are mobilized in relations of power that effects how institutions are produced • Self surveillance ensures compliance with regulatory norms • Sexuality is not natural or given • Pressure to conform to the same model • Self-surveillance ensures compliance with regulation norms Butler: • Sex, gender and sexuality are all linked by normative ideals • Cumpulsory heterosexuality produces normative sexualities • Divergers from sexual norms cause trouble to the stability Sexuality: when we talk about sexuality we create a binary, construct a hierarchy, privilege some sexual practices Sexuality in sport: • Highly regulated around sexuality • Constituted through sport participation • Sport reproduced homophobia, heterosexism and heteronormativity but also hegemonic masculinity • Discrimination: Coming out, segmented identities, homophobic discourse Gay men: • Reproduces hegemonic masculinity and homophobia • Sport is an accepting environment, but self-silence • Participate in sexist/homophobic discourse Homophobia in women’s sport: • Susan Cahn: women who are great athletes have to over express their feminity to stay away from ‘lesbian label’, performing hyperfeminity • Silence • Denial • Apology for being too masculine • Heterosexy image • Male coaches • Attacks on lesbianism Confronting Homophobia: • Education • Institutional policies • Visibility • Solidarity • Allies • Pressure tactics Debra Shogan: -Heterosexual norm in athletes -Gay men are invisible in sport -The norm for high-performance sport is masculine and heterosexual -Drills practices are exercises in heterosexism -Great deal of homophobia in womens high-performance sport Esera Tualo: -Offensive linemen in NFL for 9 years -Came out after retirement ensuring his career wasn’t cut short -Afraid of physical injury -Difficulties coming out: harassment from fans, teammates and opposing players Abdel-Shehid: -Society fears differences and privileges -Being different poses a threat resulting in hostility or violence by the ‘normal’people Audrey Hall: Sport was a way of expression, attraction to sport due to the welcoming lesbian atmosphere Helen Lenskyj: leagues organized by feminist principles of inclusiveness, regarding sporting skills as well as ethnicities and socio-economic status, give significant challenge to mainstream sport Tom Waddell: -Founder of the Gay Games -Former Olympian -Wanted to be viewed as a man, macho image being gay Ian Wellard: -Observed a gay men tennis club. -Little difference than other clubs -Challenges normative masculinity Physical Culture: Every individual should have the right to enjoy his or her bodies through physical exercise Heterosexist thinking: Normalize heterosexuality and assume that everyone sees sexuality the same way Hyper-feminity: Perform excessive feminity in fear of the lesbian label in high-performance sport Don’t Be Gay Dude: How the Institution of Sport Reinforces Homophobia Pierre Trudeau: • Bill-C, 1967 • Homosexuality was decriminalized; Omnibus bill • Equal rights • Sports remained heterosexual • ‘No place for the state in the bedrooms of nation” Sport: -Fundamentally heterosexist by reproducing and rewarding hegemonic masculinity Richard Bonomo: Hockey goalie for Boston Lobsters -Gay team in a straight league -Confirms prevalence of the “gay athlete” perception Garrison Hearst: San Fransisco running back “I don’t want any faggots on my team” Gender: • People are compelled to be a gender • Express that gender through dominate culture expressions • Canadians, masculine or feminine express gender through heterosexuality • Sport reproduces hegemonic, dominant norm 4 Key Dimensions for masculinity: 1. The re
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