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MASTER_LIST_OF_KINE_1000_(ALL_SUMMARIES)[1].doc

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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course
KINE 1000
Professor
Parissa Safai
Semester
Winter

Description
Toward a New Vision Race Class and Gender as Categories of AnalysisBy Patricia Hill Collins Summary The author writes about oppression in society and how it is full of contradictions She states that there are no pure victims or oppressors but rather everyone experiences a different amount of penalty and privilege based on their race and social status She believes that if women and people of colour could find that they have common grounds in regards to class it will eliminate racism and sexism Thesis is in bold She asks 2 questions 1How can we reconceptualise race class and gender as categories of analysisanalysis of oppression are based on eitheror dichotomous thinking ex Blackwhite manwoman and these dichotomous differences are usually ranked Therefore men are seen as superior to women whites to blacks etc Collins 19932008 p 3this is problematic because it assumes that oppression can be quantified and that some groups are more oppressed more than others Collins 19932008 p 3 she states that we must be careful not to confuse the issue of saliency of one type ofoppression in peoples lives with a theoretical stance positing the interlocking nature of oppression Collins 19932008 p 3Three Dimensions of Oppression Sandra HardingInstitutional Dimension of Oppression systemic relationships of domination and subordination structured through social institutions such as schools businesses hospitals the workplace and government agencies Symbolic Dimension of Oppression ideologies or stereotypes of race class and gender groupsEx MasculineFeminineaggressive passive leader followerstrong weak we must realize that everyone is affected differently by their race class and gender and therefore the description of masculine pertaining to a black male may be different than that pertaining to a white male Individual Dimension of Oppression the ways in which race class and gender frame ourselves individuallyeach of us has different experiences based on our race class and gender although we may be impacted by the environment we have grown up in we each have the ability to make changes if we want to in order to do something about oppression2How can we transcend the barriers created by our experiences with race class and gender oppression in order to build the types of coalitions essential for social exchangeI Differences in power limit our ability to relate to one anothervoyeurism those who are privileged become onlookers to watching how the less powerful live and do not relate to them this can be demonstrated in a case where a professor only calls on black students experiences or opinions when a black issue is being discussed or to better explain the situation for the white audience Collins 19932008 p10 II Coalitions in order to build strong coalitions we must be understanding and willing to listen to others points of view we must all bring our understanding and experiences of how race class and gender operate as categories of analysis to work together to make a difference in regards to social changeIII Empathy we must take an interest in the lives of others and develop empathy for them building empathy from the privileged is hard because they are not encouraged to do so and it requires them to see how their privileged status benefits them it is difficult for the less privileged to empathize for those who are more privileged because they have grown up with mistrust for those in powerConclusionwe must examine our position race class gender in society and understand how it benefits or disadvantages us in order to empathize with others and be a part of social change and stop oppression from occurring Social Class and Social Determinants of HealthSocial ClassPeople see sports as open to everyone but organized sports depend on material resourcesThis means sports and sports participation are connected with the distribution of economic political and social resources in society Money does matterSocial Class and class relationsSocioeconomic status are important because economic resources are related to power in society and economic inequalities influence nearly all aspects of peoples livesSocial class share similar life chances they share opportunities to achieve success and gain economic power Social stratificationis the concept used to refer to structured forms of economic inequalities that are part of the organization of everyday social lifePeople from lower social class backgrounds have fewer opportunities to achieve success and gain economic power than people from the upper classWe learn little about the oppressive effects of poverty and the limited opportunities available to those who lack economic resources access to good education and wellplaced social connectionsthe focus is on how economic inequality is Maintained in society how it serves the interests of those with wealth and economic power and how it affects what happens in sports and the lives of people associated with sports The Dynamics of Class relationsChildrens enjoyment occurs in a framework that legitimizes and reproduces the power of adults over the lives of childrenClass LogicPeople who use class logic to interpret their own lives often set out on an endless quest for individual economic achievement They measure success in terms of how many things they can acquire and how they rank relative to their peers when it comes to economic worthClass logic stresses that achievement is measured in terms of a neverending quest to improve the bottom line Class Relations and Those who have the power in sportsThe US List focuses more on power and influence than the Canadianlist focuses on newsworthinessThe US List is also a sobering reminder of the power and influence of US And international corporations on the world of sportsThose who control resources in Canada and around the world their main purpose is to establish and expand the power and profitability of the organizations represented by the decision makers Therefore sports tend to revolve around the meanings and orientations valued by those with economic resources and power while providing enjoyable and entertaining experiences to people around the world Sports as a Vehicle for transferring Public Money to Wealthy Individuals and Private CorporationsSince 1990 The four major sport leagues in North America have built 72 newstadiums and arenas costing 194 Billion US It is also noted that 66 percent of thiscost was paid from public funds
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