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Final Exam Review - Riddell 2011-2012.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Jennifer Kuk

April 2012 Infectious Diseases  Infectious diseases contribute to at least ¼ of all death rates  Everyday around 8000 people die of AIDS related infections o Around 3 million people die per year  Around 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) per year o Around 1 million die worldwide per year (5500 deaths per year)  Almost 300 million cases of acute cases of malaria per year o More than 1 million die per year o Malaria is a major cause of death to children under age 5 in tropical Africa Disease: a pathological condition of the body (part of the body) that is characterized by an identifiable ground of signs or symptoms Infectious Disease: Disease that is caused by an infectious agent such as bacterium, virus, protozoan, fungus, etc. that can be passed from one person to another Infection: an infectious agent that enters the body and begins to reproduce. May or may not lead to an infectious disease Pathogen: an infectious agent that causes a disease Host: an organism infected by another organism or pathogen Virulence: the ability of an agent to cause rapid and severe diseases in a host Clasification of Agents of Disease:  Bacteria  Viruses  Protozoa  Fungi  Parasitic worms (helminthes)  Prions Virus vs Bacteria  Virus and bacteria can both cause infections but differ in several ways Virus Bacteria  Remember that viruses are much smaller than bacteria  A Hosts doesn’t have to be human o A virus can possibly live in a bacteria (that’s how small a virus is) o For a bacteria, you can feel the infected part swell up o For structure, virus need 8 genes for it to reproduce but bacteria needs 1000s of genes to reproduce  In the influenza virus, there are 2 main notes to know o Hemagglutinin: allows virus to enter the host cell o Neuraminidase: allows virus to escape the host’s cell th  14 century black plague – 20 million died  1918 pandemic (H1N1) – 50 million died  1968 Hong Kong Flue (H3N2) – 1 million died  2003-2007 H5N1 Avian Bird Flu Virus – 258 infections, 155 deaths (60%) SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome)  Spreads from person to person  Water droplet transmission (sneezing, coughing, etc)  Symptoms o Fever higher than 38 degrees o Cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Examples of Viruses and Bacteria  Rhinoviruses is like the nose cold, runny nose  Herpes virus causes cold sores, genital sores. Will never fully go away, it can calm down and seem like it’s gone but viral particles are still in the area  Retrovirus is very good in replicating itself with the host DNA, causing it hard to identify at first  Tuberculosis had no cure in the 1800s so they would send you to a group home where you stay there until you die  Tetanus is a bacteria that can travel in the blood stream, which then locks your jaw which you cannot open anymore  Gonorrhea is STD and is estimated that 15-20% have it  Differences: o Viruses: use host cell to replicate. Only get killed off by immune system. They don’t respond to antibiotics o Bacteria: they reproduce on their own. They are bigger, they may even hold a virus in them. They respond to antibiotics  Parasites are another thing that can spread diseases. For example, it can cause malaria in areas like Africa by spreading plasmodium which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. It end up in the brain and can make you start acting very weird. Can possible be deadly  A prion o An infection agent o A protein-like structure o Discovered when cows were acting very strange (mad cow disease) o Symptoms: abnormal behaviour, loss of coordination, tremors, rigidity, irritability, and progressive dementia o Death usually occurs within 3-12 months from onset of symptoms How do you catch an infection?  Animals and insects  People  Food  Water Main points about infections  Pathogens are everywhere! (food, air, water animals, plants)  You catch a virus usually from contact with another person  You catch Bacteria usually from contact with people, animals, plants, food, soil and water  Our immune system somewhat protects us from infections Chain of infection What determines if you get a pathogen?  Is the pathogen in the environment around you?  What is the amount of pathogen?  Is there a point of entry?  How strong is your immune system? If you have a strong immune system, there’s a higher chance of killing the pathogen Examples of breaking the chain of infection before it gets to you:  West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause encephalitis, first appeared in 1937 o Encephalitis first started off in birds then to mosquitos which then gave it to humans Ways that our body protects us from virus and bacteria  Our skin  Mucus membranes  Fluids (tears, saliva)  Cilia  Coughing, sneezing, etc  Immune system o Inflammatory response (immediate response of the body to an infection) o Immune response (longer to respond because they have to mobilize white blood cells that would recognize the foreign invaders)  Lymphatic system o Vessels/glands that puck up fluid, protein, lipids, etc o Contains white blood cells that trap and destroy and filer pathogens  Inflammatory Response (following injury or infection, inflammation occurs) o Histamine causes blood vessels to dilate and fluid to accumulate o Heat, swelling, and redness o Macrophages and neutrophils attack the infection o Pus (collection of dead white blood cells and debris) The Immune System  There are 2 kinds of responses (both recognize the invader based on the invaders antigen)  Innate (natural)  Acquired Antigen: A marker on the surface of a foreign substance that the immune system recognizes as non self that triggers the immune system Innate immunity  Recognizes general types of antigens (non-specific antigens) immediately or within several hours and fights it off with neutrophils and macrophages  This is the immunity one is born with Acquired Immunity  Antigen-specific defence mechanism that takes days to become protective and are designed to remove a specific antigen  This is the immunity that one develops throughout life  The downside of it being so specific is that if the antigen that
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