Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
CVD: is a term used for diseases affecting the circulatory system including the heart and blood
vessels. Whether the blood vessels are affecting the lungs, brain, kidney or other organs this is
still a CVD.
The most costly disease in 2000 was musculoskeletal diseases, then cardiovascular diseases,
then neuropsychiatric conditions. CVD has a cost of 7.6 billion for direct cost (physicians, drugs)
and 14.1 billion for indirect cost (disability, mortality). Neuropsychiatric conditions had the most
costly direct cost (diagnostic cost).
Even though the amount of death from CVD has decreased over time, still there is a huge
amount of death. CVD constitutes of 27% of the leading causes to death (including heart disease
and stroke). However, the # 1 leading cause to death is cancer and it is 29.6%.
There is a variation with CV death between Canadian provinces. This mostly depends on the
laziness of the people in the province. Also, there is a variation of CVD death with age and sex.
More men die from CV until the age of 85 and then more women die from CVD than men. This
difference is because there are more women by the age of 85 than men, to die. Also, because of
the introduction of lipid lowering medication which works better for men.
Due to the good health standards in Canada the Canadian life expectancy at age 65 is higher
than their life expectancy at birth. Keeping in mind that even though both sexes has increased
life expectancy, females still live longer.
ECG: measures the
necessary to get the
cardiac muscles to
effectiveness by the
amount of heart
proteins in blood,
the more proteins
in blood the worse.
- In the red part there is more oxygen then CO2 and in the blue is the opposite. Note where the left and
right atriums are & where the right and left ventricles are.
- Remember arteries & aorta move blood away from the heart, while veins and & vena cava move blood
to the heart.
- Two ways to measure oxygen consumption: 1- External respiration: measure O2 consumption at lungs
2- Internal respiration: measure O2 consumption at organ. The higher the VO2 in a person there is a lower chance of them getting CVD. However, VO2
capacity lowers the risk of CVD in men more than women. Women with VO2 below 35ml/kg.min
have 5 times higher risk of CVD. However, Men with VO2 below 44 ml/kg.min have 8 times
higher risk of a CVD. Thus, lower than average VO2 (oxygen uptake) has a significant risk of
PQ or P=atrium contraction
QR or PR= time for negative potential to get to ventricle
ST=time for ventricle to empty blood
T=ventricle negatively charging
TP=ventricle relaxing and blood filling to atrium
Depolarization=making the potential less
Abnormalities in rate
attack). Types of the 6 CVD (associated with loss of
function/control of the cardiovascular system).
Types of cardiovascular diseases
-refers to problems
with blood supply of
O2 and nutrients to
heart thru coronary ar
-A complete blockage PVD (Peripheral)
of coronary arteries
-refers to problems
causes necrosis -affects circulation of
(damaged tissues) or with blood supply of Rheumatic heart disease
heart attack. O2 and nutrients to blood supply to the
-partial blockage -blockage for less than -caused by
24H is ischemic attack. -Symptoms include bacterial infection
causes Ischemia (lack pain in calves when
of O2). Symptoms -complete blockage is walking. affecting heart
include angina (chest called Clot or a Stroke. valves as a child
pain) and dyspnea and then appears
(shortness of breath). years later.
-to cure valves
have to be
-when the heart pumping is weak, so it
can’t provide enough blood to the rest
of the body as needed. (Not all blood is
-This happens because of heart muscle Congenital heart
disease (Cardiomyopathy -Congenital=disease
[enlargement of heart, squeezed
valves, bigger ventricles]) or alcohol a person is born with.
consumption or weak heart due to - refers to a problem
heart attacks. with the heart
structure a person is
-symptoms are shortness of breath and born with.
-the cause is holes
the in heart.
-lead to death unless
surgery is done. Risk for cardiovascular Disease
- ¼ of heart attacks have no prior symptoms (silent killer), and only 19 of adult Canadians
have no heart attack risk factors (i.e, 81% have one or more risk factor).
Keep in mind that there
are modifiable factors CV Risk factors u can’t control
which u can control to
lower ur risk
Male Pattern Baldness
-men under 55 years of
age who lost hair at the
Heredity vertex (top of the head)
Race and Ethnicity have an increased CV
-Anyone whose close
relatives suffered heart disease risk.
-aboriginals, south -This is caused by the
attacks in at an increased Asian, and Eastern way they metabolize
risk of developing heart Europeans are at risk hormones differently