Final exam 1020 notes.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Angelo Belcastro

Belcastro Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)  CVD: is a term used for diseases affecting the circulatory system including the heart and blood vessels. Whether the blood vessels are affecting the lungs, brain, kidney or other organs this is still a CVD.  The most costly disease in 2000 was musculoskeletal diseases, then cardiovascular diseases, then neuropsychiatric conditions. CVD has a cost of 7.6 billion for direct cost (physicians, drugs) and 14.1 billion for indirect cost (disability, mortality). Neuropsychiatric conditions had the most costly direct cost (diagnostic cost).  Even though the amount of death from CVD has decreased over time, still there is a huge amount of death. CVD constitutes of 27% of the leading causes to death (including heart disease and stroke). However, the # 1 leading cause to death is cancer and it is 29.6%.  There is a variation with CV death between Canadian provinces. This mostly depends on the laziness of the people in the province. Also, there is a variation of CVD death with age and sex. More men die from CV until the age of 85 and then more women die from CVD than men. This difference is because there are more women by the age of 85 than men, to die. Also, because of the introduction of lipid lowering medication which works better for men.  Due to the good health standards in Canada the Canadian life expectancy at age 65 is higher than their life expectancy at birth. Keeping in mind that even though both sexes has increased life expectancy, females still live longer. ECG: measures the electric activity necessary to get the cardiac muscles to contract. -Measures heart effectiveness by the amount of heart proteins in blood, the more proteins in blood the worse. - In the red part there is more oxygen then CO2 and in the blue is the opposite. Note where the left and right atriums are & where the right and left ventricles are. - Remember arteries & aorta move blood away from the heart, while veins and & vena cava move blood to the heart. - Two ways to measure oxygen consumption: 1- External respiration: measure O2 consumption at lungs 2- Internal respiration: measure O2 consumption at organ.  The higher the VO2 in a person there is a lower chance of them getting CVD. However, VO2 capacity lowers the risk of CVD in men more than women. Women with VO2 below 35ml/kg.min have 5 times higher risk of CVD. However, Men with VO2 below 44 ml/kg.min have 8 times higher risk of a CVD. Thus, lower than average VO2 (oxygen uptake) has a significant risk of developing CVD. PQ or P=atrium contraction QR or PR= time for negative potential to get to ventricle QRS=ventricle contracting ST=time for ventricle to empty blood T=ventricle negatively charging TP=ventricle relaxing and blood filling to atrium Depolarization=making the potential less negative=contracting.  Abnormalities in rate include Tachycardia. Abnormalities in rhythm include Extrasystole, Ventricular fibrillation, Complete heart block. Cardiac Myopathies include Myocardial infarction (heart attack). Types of the 6 CVD (associated with loss of function/control of the cardiovascular system). Types of cardiovascular diseases Ischemic (heart) -refers to problems with blood supply of O2 and nutrients to heart thru coronary ar Cerebro (Stroke) -A complete blockage PVD (Peripheral) of coronary arteries -refers to problems causes necrosis -affects circulation of (damaged tissues) or with blood supply of Rheumatic heart disease heart attack. O2 and nutrients to blood supply to the brain. legs. -partial blockage -blockage for less than -caused by 24H is ischemic attack. -Symptoms include bacterial infection causes Ischemia (lack pain in calves when of O2). Symptoms -complete blockage is walking. affecting heart include angina (chest called Clot or a Stroke. valves as a child pain) and dyspnea and then appears (shortness of breath). years later. Affects valves opening/ closing -to cure valves have to be surgically replaced. Heart failure -when the heart pumping is weak, so it can’t provide enough blood to the rest of the body as needed. (Not all blood is pumped out). -This happens because of heart muscle Congenital heart disease (Cardiomyopathy -Congenital=disease [enlargement of heart, squeezed valves, bigger ventricles]) or alcohol a person is born with. consumption or weak heart due to - refers to a problem heart attacks. with the heart structure a person is -symptoms are shortness of breath and born with. legs swelling. -the cause is holes the in heart. -lead to death unless an immediate surgery is done.  Risk for cardiovascular Disease - ¼ of heart attacks have no prior symptoms (silent killer), and only 19 of adult Canadians have no heart attack risk factors (i.e, 81% have one or more risk factor). ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Keep in mind that there are modifiable factors CV Risk factors u can’t control which u can control to lower ur risk Male Pattern Baldness -men under 55 years of age who lost hair at the Heredity vertex (top of the head) Race and Ethnicity have an increased CV -Anyone whose close relatives suffered heart disease risk. -aboriginals, south -This is caused by the attacks in at an increased Asian, and Eastern way they metabolize risk of developing heart Europeans are at risk hormones differently disease.
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