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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Kuk/ Riddell

Athlete Fitness Testing  Only focussed at the elite athletes, not the amateur athletes since there are issues with growth in performance.  But before we begin, we need some reference points to why we are selecting that particular test. o It should never result in an injury in an athlete.  In the graph, there is velocity on the y axis and force on x axis and power on the other one. The challenge is to improve the peak power of the athlete and if they can maintain that peak power for some time.  To find the balance between conditioning and playing that allows you to bring out the best in an athlete.  If the focus is only on one or the other( resistance or explosive power training, it will not improve the performance in general but if the focus can be on both of them then performance can be achieved.  It takes time to make an elite athlete since much of the body is made up of muscles and it takes time to improve the performance in an athlete.  There are different factors that affects a performance of athlete in an particular situations o Body's adaptation to the training o Motivation level o Nutritional status o Weather conditions  Physical fitness testing consists of the physiological processes like o Aerobic systems o Anaerobic a lactic o Anaerobic lactic system. o Oxidative phosphorylation  Competition is the ultimate test of performance capability o It is important to determine the athlete's ability in individual aspects of performance. o It also measure the individual components of performance.  Benefits of testing can be o Predict future performance o Indicate weakness o Measure improvement o Enable the coach to use different methods towards succession o Motivate the athlete.  At every competition, there is a massive amount of data that is recorded for the research and the major use is to establish the strengths and weaknesses of the athlete.  The monitor progression is really important for an athletes performance. o Initial tests are done to predict the baseline o Baseline is important in the training phase. o Tests should be done in the start and finish of the phase. o Regular tests are mandatory for 2-6 weeks in the worse case scenario or 3-6 months  Promotes motivation in the athlete if they know that they are going to be tested again.  Fitness testing is also used in talent identification. But it has not be very reliable in junior population for sports because of growth, talent ID factors use factors such as the technique, tactic and psychological factors.  Standing long jump tests can be done for a well coordinated athletes for overall performance o A well coordinated athlete should jump at least their height and more if possible. Athletic fitness therapy: 27th march, 2013  Athlete testing o Vision- hand and eye coordination o Blood pressure o ECG o Joint testing o Body composition o Strength devices o Upper body strength o Bench press- 150 lbs o Sit ups o Sit and reach test o Standing long jump o Medicine ball test o Four vertical jumps o Power vertical jumps o Balance tests o Anaerobic bike- fits test and wind gate test o VO2 max test  Everyone has to go through a psychological tests before they can go through a physical test. BFOR : 1st April, 2013  Workers and volunteers also need to be physically fit according to the health standards.  Bona Fide occupational requirement (BFOR)-- essential.  A set of physical and physiological attributes that are either health related or performance related is call Physical Fitness. o You need certain level of cardio logical and physiological levels in order to be considered fit.  Those components of fitness that exhibits a relationship with health status is called health related fitness.  Those components that enable optimal work or sport performance is called the performance related fitness.  As the age increases the physical requirements may not change overtime but the fitness level change over time. o Canadian levels of fitness have gone up since 1999 but certain things are need to be done in order to keep people physically active.  We are getting better at administering the fitness levels and people are realizing that it is a benefit to keep the fitness level for a longer time in an occupation since they know that physical activity level are considerably going down.  de facto accommodation-- what can be done in order to improve the fitness levels.  A public safety task is a task in which the safety of the worker may be compromised by the failure to complete or inefficient performance of the required task.  All the physical tests that are conducted are all legally amended.  Supreme court of Canada has a 3 step process which are not discriminatory o Rationally connected to the performance of the job o Necessary to the fulfillment of that legitimate work related purpose.  Has to be done under emergency circumstances o That standard can't be changed and if it changed then does it affect the employer.  If the employer knows that the new appointment is not capable of doing the job than they are responsible for the actions.  Criterion based- levels that are needed for the job level.  It could take a long time to set up the rules for the fitness levels. There are 7 phases for these rules.  It would be better if the VO2 max levels are at least 10 points above the normal one since the emergency situations can last for hours  The 7 phases are: o Project management team for the fitness tests  If the subjects are natives than the examiners should be native also. o Learn anything possible about the job.  Manuals, etc. o Rank ordered list are critical and have the high physical demands. o Task characterization  Weigh all the tools Measure the forces   Measure the physiological responses  Happens in the jails usually o Develop FITCO test protocol  Job simulation, fitness components or hybrid  Refine it  Established objective  Construct validity  If the tests are needed for the job requirement. o Construct and content validation  If you can do the test, you can do the job.  Adverse impact -- o If less than 80% pass than there is an adverse effect. o Males have much higher chances to pass the fitness testing rather than females. o Training does help and improves the overall fitness level in an individual. Musculoskeletal Health and fitness --23rd Jan, 2013  Muscle adaptations --remodelling o muscle fibre  New fibres and fibre transition are made as part of remodelling process. o Muscle hypertrophy  Timing and magnitude of muscular adaptations  Formation of new muscle fibres is critical to normal muscle formation -- turnover o Replace old fibres with new ones o No. Of fibres genetically determined, types of fibres genetically influenced  Formation of new muscle fibres is called myogenesis o Satellite cells--> myoblast- myotube - muscle  Sequence of events that are initiated when the new muscle is formed. o Activators include myoD and myogenin o Inhibitors include myostatin  Muscle fibre transitions o Stimulation of myogenesis with training  Resistance training  Increase myoD and myogenin expression with peak of about 36 hours  Reduces myostatin---inhibitor for the satellite cell into muscle cell.  Endurance training  Modest impact on regulator of myogenesis o Muscle adaptation -- muscle fibre transition  Myosin Heavy Chain - T1/2 is about 30 hours  MHC changes after 2-3 workouts  More oxidative  Type IIX - reservoir fibre---can change with the performance and are related with high force fibres.  Transformation happens within type II fibres only.  Increase in size of muscle with strength and anaerobic training  Increase in muscle fibre size die to more protein as a result of increased protein synthesis and that's why hypertrophy resulting from training is a result of protein degradation and protein synthesis Cycles of degradation and synthesis are critical for hypertrophy   Protein Degradation- peak at end of effort and slows down in recovery lasting 24 hours and also can stay elevated with chronic conditions  Protein Synthesis- little increase immediately after exercise and reaches peak 36-48 hours of recovery  Resistance training o Both types increases  3-6 months  Type II by 35%  Type I by 20%  Athletes vs. untrained  Type II by 132% the UT  Type I > 60 % then UT o Children can go up to a max. Of 5-7% with muscle hypertrophy after 3 month period.  Structural changes o Increased number of myofibrils o Increased density/amount of the sodium- potassium pump, SR, T-tubule o Results in an improved calcium handling which is important for power and speed activity o Hyperplasia-- increase in muscle fibre number  Not in humans but seen in some animals. Characteristics of muscle function -- 7th Jan, 2013  ATP - Adenosine triphosphate o Metabolic currency which has delta G of -7.3 kcal/mole o Allows for the energy to transfer from exergonic to endergonic chemical reactions. o Myosin ATPase hydrolyses ATP molecule to create heat (75%) and energy (25%)  ATP + H20 --> ADP + Pi+ H +Eh o ATP concentration is held relatively constant therefore as muscle contraction continues energy must be regenerated in the form of ATP.  Phosphagen system --> immediate o Occurs in Sarcoplasm o Doesn't require oxygen - anaerobic system  Glycolytic--> requires glucose o Occurs in Sarcoplasm o Both anaerobic and aerobic system  Oxidative--> uses glucose and lipids o Occurs in mitochondria o An aerobic energy system  Phosphagen o As the contraction happens in the muscle, ATP is broken down to produce ADP and energy but since ATP concentration in the muscle should be maintained, another reaction takes place to balance the level of ATP back to normal and that reaction is : +  ATP +Cr ADP +PCr+H Creatine Kinase o PCr is another high end source in skeletal muscle-- as long as there is an abundance of PCr on the right side, this reaction can continue to produce ATP. o Creatine Kinase can work either way to balance out the reaction and since the body only store about 8-10 secs of Creatine in our body thus the body can't use the high energy phosphagen source for a long time.  Increased amount of PCr doesn't provide an extra edge in performance o Creatine Kinase is physically located with myosin ATPase everywhere in the body, where ever there is ATPase there is a Creatine Kinase enzyme. o After PCr starts to decrease and the reaction slows down, another reaction kicks in where adenylate Kinase or myokinase takes  ATP + AMP phosphofructokinase --> rate limiting enzyme in glycolysis  Depends on the rate the PFK is working at, if it is high then the Glycolysis cycle will happen at a faster rate and if it is slow, then the cycle will happen at a slower rate.  Controlled by AMP and ATP through allosteric control. o ADP and AMP are the two main controllers of PFK o Production of 4ATP has taken place with 2X3 carbon chains. o Glycogen phosphorylase takes the muscle glycogen and breaks it into glucose 6-P. In anaerobic conditions it comes from muscle glycogen. As well, when muscle lactate is formed from pyruvate, it also indicates the anaerobic pathway. o Aerobic Glycolysis --- blood glucose becomes the source of glucose, 6-P, with the help of hexokinase and the end point is acetyl COA by using pyruvate dehydrogenase in mitochondria.  Anaerobic Glycolysis depends on o Amount of glycolysis --> the more the longer it can run  Source of glucose comes from muscle glycogen and then broken by glycogen phosphorylase o Amount of lactate --> as the level of lactate goes up, it slows down the transfer of pyruvate to lactate and as pyruvate goes up, it causes problem in the muscle and slows down the glycolysis reaction. o Trained athletes will have higher blood lactate since they have better capacity of putting lactate back to blood. + o Conversion of NAD to NADH and vice versa, if it slows down then it slows down the anaerobic glycolysis.  Aerobic Glycolysis depends on: o Getting the blood glucose to come into the muscle so that it can be the start point of glycolysis. Calcium and insulin are the two components that allows the blood glucose to get into the muscle. o Build up of acetyl CoA--> as it builds up, it will slow down the transfer of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA, which will slow down glycolysis affecting aerobic glycolysis. But if oxygen is present than acetyl CoA can be metabolised in the mitochondrion. o Increase in PDH activity should be there in order to glycolysis faster o NAD/NADH --> it is important since the transfer exchanges NAD to NADH is important by the enzyme in the mitochondrion, otherwise it will disrupt the process of glycolysis. o Anaerobic System produces less energy but it works in short duration. Produces 4 ATP's with 2X3 carbon chain. o Aerobic system produces more energy but time requirement makes it slow.  Oxidative phosphorylation -- > happens in the mitochondrion. o 2 pathways  Tricarboxylic Acid cycle (TCA) --> takes the NAD/NADH reaction as well takes Acetyl CoA to produce NADH which produces CO 2  Electron Transport Chain (ETC) --> series of reactions --> takes H ions and moves into the outer layer of mitochondrion where oxygen becomes available to produce water.  Acetyl CoA can come from fats and proteins to produce ATP.  Oxygen uptake and removal of CO w2ich was produced earlier Is required for aerobic system  ATP Synthase generates ATP in the mitochondrion to produce the energy for muscle contraction  ADP + Pi ------------------> ATP ATP Synthase  Capacity in mitochondrion depends on : o Concentration of Acetyl CoA o Cytochrome C from ETC o Oxygen concentration  Capacity in the muscle depends on: o % of Type I fibres o Volume of mitochondrion o Blood flow in the vessels  Rate in mitochondrion depends on o Isocitrate dehydrogenase -- a TCA cycle enzyme o ATP demand as determined by the myosin ATPase  Phosphagen system is immediate and anaerobic, occurs without oxygen  Glycolysis is the breakdown of carbohydrates, either glycogen store in the muscle or delivered in the blood to produce ATP with or without oxygen  Oxidative phosphorylation system is the primary source of ATP at rest and low intensity, it uses primarily carbs. and fats as substrate  All three systems are active at the same time but just depends on the work intensity and power, which one comes first and which one comes next. Energy Production and capacity -- 11th Jan, 2013  Impact on sarcoplasmic reticulum o There is a reduction in the amount of calcium being released from the SR due to :  Depressed calcium release channel protein  More calcium gets stuck in the SR  A reduction in the amount of calcium being returned to (uptake) by the SR calcium pump protein.-- amount of calcium is reduced in fatigue and the reduction is because of the pump which is not working appropriatly.  Decreased activity of the SR calcium ATPase pump(SERCA)  Sequence in SR happens in this particular order: o Decrease calcium return to SR- relaxation  The ability of the calcium to go back to the contractile protein becomes less. o The calcium remaining in SR is more difficulty to release- increased calcium staying in SR-- in order for the calcium to be released for the relaxation of the muscle, calcium should be present over there and then it becomes a problem since the uptake of the calcium decreases. o Depressed calcium release from the SR  This method is known as calcium overload and this is associated with HFF --high frequency fatigue. This is a primary hypothesis when we talk about fatigue.  Diseases are in low frequency fatigue, need calcium but happens in a different way.  Fatigue is associated with: o Phosphagen sources  Reduced levels or lower supply of creatine phosphate or PCr can be up to 80% depleted  If creatine is taken 40% extra from external sources it only results in 5-8% increase in performance but it is not consistent.  Increased Hydrogen ions from ATP lower pH-- as the hydrogen ions builds up the pH level goes down making the muscle more acidic hence producing lactic acid. o Anaerobic Glycolysis-- for shorter duration of the performance  Lower supply- reduced glycogen concentrations  Is we have less glycogen level then energy becomes less as compared to the higher level of glycogen and also it tends to DELAY the fatigue.  Glycogen can be increased through training, combination of exercise and diet.  Increased metabolic capacity-- athletes who have highest level of glycogen doesn't always wins the race since it has to have the same level of fitness.  Builds up or accumulation of intracellular muscle lactate  Lactic acid increase fatigue but moving lactate level is well taken by trained athletes. o Aerobic metabolism - oxidative phosphorylation  Accumulation or increase reactive oxygen species (ROS)  Although most of the oxygen used for aerobic metabolism to form water.  A proportion of the oxygen does not complex appropriately with water and becomes reactive  Superoxide molecule since it doesn't match with the particular hydrogen ions-- one of the hydrogen ions doesn't match with the oxygen to form water hence it becomes superoxide  This superoxide comes from mitochondrion  In muscle this superoxide can go to hydrogen peroxide or other different sources.  Superoxide with exercise increases which eventually starts to damage the muscle eventually leading to fatigue. o Increasing inorganic phosphate in cytoplasm space  Delays detachment phase of A-M cross bridges.  In order for Actin and myosin to contract, energy in the form of ATP and calcium are needed for the myosin associate with Act+n.  ATP gets broken down into ADP + Pi+ H + Eh, Pi concentration is an important controller for the release of actin and myosin, as Pi is build up essentially acts as a break and slows down the actin and myosin contraction.  Increasing hydrogen ions levels will decrease the pH--heavy exercise from 7.2 to 6.8, myosin ATPase breaks into products will slows the enzyme that actually produces the force --ATPase  Myosin ATPase activity is reduced at lower pH  With lower pH a decreased sensitivity of troponin (on actin filament) to calcium  Increased H ions concentration --> lower muscle pH--> Troponin is less sensitive to calcium(H ions hides site)  Build up of ADP which slows down the Actin-Myosin ATPase activity o Skeletal muscle fatigue hypotheses  Sarcolema  t-tubule  SR  A-M contractile  Force transmission o Calcium hypotheses  Disturbance in calcium transport handling  Impaired excitation - contraction coupling  Reduced calcium sensitivity if myofibril processes  Activation of calcium degradative processes (calpain protease)  Less calcium release changes the structure of the muscle. Energy Production and Capacity -- 9th Jan, 2013  All these three systems are integrated with each other.  There is a inverse between the intensity of the activity and the time of the activity. The higher the intensity of the activity the lower time it can be performed for. o Relationship is built on rate and capacity of the three systems to supply ATP  Rate at which ATP is created  Capacity --how much ATP is created. o Phosphagen +fast glycolysis = anaerobic glycolysis o Fast glycolysis + oxidation = aerobic glycolysis  Healthy muscles allows for the ability to perform coordinated activities with : o Posture o Ambulation o Leisure/sports o Function tasks for daily living.  MSK disorders -- WHO classifications o Muscle structure/ function--> muscle fatigue o Functional li
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