Musculoskeletal

5 Pages
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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 1020
Professor
Angelo Belcastro

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Description
Musculoskeletal Musculoskeletal Health and Fitness: - Healthy muscles allows a person to move freely and to keep the body responsive and strong. Relationship among Muscle, Movement and Physical activity: i. Muscles produce force or tension – applied or expressed in types of contraction ii. Contractions support a variety of movements (fundamental and specialized motor skills) iii. Movements are coordinated into actions or physical activity Muscle  walking  Fundamental Motor Skills (FMS)  Specialized movement skills (SMS) - FMS – 6 years of age – coordinated into specialized skills. - Quantity (amount of muscle mass) and quality (type of muscle of cells) play large role in determining in not only the patterns of movement but also the effectiveness of that movement. - SMS have variety of different outcomes: i. Functionality: it allows you to do normal daily activities ii. Occupational: task specified – criterion preference iii. Sport-related: any kinds of sport that have competition/performance iv. Active lifestyle: targeted on certain parameter that are used to assess the value or the importance of that movement on one’s health ex. CRF (cardiovascular repertory fitness) , strength/power, body composition, flexibility. Classification of Musculoskeletal Disorders a) Body structure and function: transient and reversal decrease in muscle function – manifest itself in minutes to hours ( b) Activity limitations: injury or damage and associated pain leading to impaired – days to years (ex. Strains, low back pain) c) Any restriction to participation: injury leading to chronic disability, degeneration and loss of muscle (ongoing) (ex. Osteoporosis) Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Categories of Muscle a. Skeletal muscle i. Stariated ii. Voluntary iii. 600 skeletal muscles – 40-50% of total body weight iv. Functions: locomotion and breathing, postural support, heat production during cold stress b. Cardiac Muscle: i. Electrically coupled cells – cells in cardiac muscle are connected through a series of intercalated discs. This relationship between cardiac muscle cells is important in terms of function. If one gets stimulated the other cells would be stimulated as well. c. Smooth muscle- i. Non-striated- tonal control STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE: - Muscle is composed of number of fascicle which are bundle of muscle fibre/cells. - Myofibril are located within the muscle fibre/cell.  Muscle  fascicle  muscle cell/fibre  myofibril  sarcomere  There are 10,000 sarcomere in one myofibril  5000 myofibrils within a muscle cell  We have a million cells - We have different shades or regions within the myofibril because of the density of proteins (amount of proteins) contained within the different regions in the sarcomere. Actin: made out of g-actin, which are globular/round individual proteins, that complex together to form pearl like structure. Once all the g-proteins form into a double helix it is now known as f-actin. Myosin: made of number of myosin proteins. Contains the head region and the rod region. It forms the thick filament. The basic generation of force or productions comes from when these two proteins come together, force production tension occurs and as result you have a moment of z-lines coming together. Some of the requirements for actin and myosin to get together: Energy – ATP; primarily focused on regulating myosin to attach/de-attach with actin  Calcium – needed to prepare the thin/actin filament to be ready for myosin , binds to a specific proteins, troponins, that are found on the f-actin and cause a physical movements between some of the g-actin (yellow molecules). So the site for myosin is now available.  Alignment of proteins: protein-protein interactions. Once Myosin is attached to ATP, a chemical energy, it has to be converted into mechanical energy because force production/ tension production is mechanical event (not a chemical event). To do that, you have to hydrolyze the ATP molecule into ADP+Pi. Myosin ATPase is not an old protein anymore. It is an enzyme. ATPase refers to as myosin protein enzymatic ability to split, breakdown, hydrolyze ATP and so doing it releases chemical energy and transforms into to mechanical energy so that contraction can occur. We need calcium in order for the binding to happen. Once calcium binds to actin, it can now bind with the energized myosin, and as a result, we have mechanical energy being released which causes the z-lines to shorten. - Myosin ATPase doesn’t make ATP, it consumes ATP. Myosin ATPase then hydrolyzes ATP into ADP+Pi + H + heat energy and mechanical energy. - Within skelet
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